Digital Creation Critical ANalysis. Beheviour. Brush.

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Earls Paul. Composer and light artist [Popper 1] p. 135.
> Laser music works (1980). Vimeo video.
> Centrebeam (1977). A multit-technology event at Kassel's Documenta. on the work Milwaukee Anemone of Otto Piene. Earls took part.

Easterly Douglas. Bio art, see Swamp.

EAT. Experiments in Art and Technology. Group founded 1966 by Robert Rauschenberg and Billy Klüver. See 9 Evenings.
- Quoted by [Greene] p. 23.
< EAT. The Story of Experiments in Art and Technology. NTT InterCommunication.

Eaton Ed.
> Wall Sculpture. (2006 c.) Virtual sculpture. Reproduction by sprinkling.

Eaton Tristan
< The 3D art book. Prestel 2011. A collection of still images. No reference to computing.

Ebcioglu Kemal.
> Choral (1998). Expert system for music composition (choral with four parts).

Ebener Chrisoph. Bio-Art
> Hamster Symbiotic Exchange of Hoarded Energy (1999), by Uli Winters and Chrisoph Ebener, in collaboration with Frank Fietzek. Cited with picture by [Reichle 2009]

Eber Dana Elisabeth. Digital images.
> Conversations 1 (2000) [Wands].  

David Ebert. The textures wizard.

Ebert David Professor, mainly at Purdue University (Silicon Valley).
< Texturing and modeling, a procedural approach, by David S. Ebert, F. Kenton Musgrave, Darwyn Peachey, Ken Perlin and Steven Workey. Morgan Kaufman 2003 (687 pages).
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 152.

Eberwein Thomas. Founded the Digital Club.

Eckermann Sylvia. Games.
> fluID: Arenas of Identities (2003) by Mathias Fuchs and Sylvia Eckermann. Cited by [Reichle 2009] with a picture, and the comment "Abusing videogames to create art and theatre".

Ecole de design Nantes Atlantique. Superior private teaching, managed by the Chambre de commerce de Nantes.

Eco Umberto Writer and art critic.
< Le pendule de Foucault. Grasset 1990. (italian ed. 1970). Interesting notably about text processing and literature.
< The future of book. edited by Geoffrey Nunberg, with a post-face by Umberto Eco University of California Press, 1996.
< L'oeuvre ouverte, by Umberto Eco, Chantal Roux de Besizieux and André Boucourechliev. Seuil 1965

e.critures. A group or digital literature writers.
> WC Field
, (2001) A poetry patchwork where the different writers styles do not merge. [Bootz].

Edelman Bernard.
< L'art en conflits. L'oeuvre de l'esprit entre droit et sociologie
. by Bernard Edelman et Nathalie Heinich. La Découverte 2002.

Edelstein-Gomez Madja Curator
> Les recombinants (2017) Algoritmhic curating of show.

Edmiston Jeremy . Architect. Member of SYSTEMarchitects group.

Edmonds Ernest. Painting. Page Creativity and Cognition . Expert on human-computer interaction and creativity.
> Nineteen (1968).

EDT. See Electronic Disturbance Theater.

Edwards Michael. Composer ant theorist.
< Algorithmic composition : computational thinking in music. Ten pages in Communications of the ACM, July 2011. A dense and powerful synthesis ."Calculation has been part of Western composition tradition for at least 1 000 years... Algorithmic composition systems cover all aesthetics and styles, with some open-ended variants offering an alternative to the fixed, never changing compositions that for most of us define the limits of music". > Tramontana (2004). for viol and computer. Uses L-systeme ant Common music notation software, by Bill Schottstaedt.
> Slippery chicken (2000). Algorithmic composition software.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 60.
- Emission Dissonances about contemporary music, animated by Bernard Girard.

Eisemann Elmar. Associate professor, Paritech/ENST.

Eimer Herbert.
> Klang im unbregreztem Raum (1950 c.) The beginnings of electronic music.
- The Paul Collaer (1965) standpoint.

Eisenstein Serghei Mikhaïlvitch. Director. A precursor of digital art by his constant care for structure, due, by the way, to his engineer education (same case, by the same period, the painter Juan Gris).
< Eisenstein, by Marie Seton. Seuil 1957.
< Eisenstein et le constructivisme russe, by François Albera. Editions l'Age d'homme Lausanne 1990.
< Film Form. Essays in Film Theory. Edited and translated by Jay Leyda. Harcourt Brace, New York, NY, 1949.
> Alexandre Nevski (1938).
> Le cuirsssé Potemkine (1927).
> La grève (1924).

Elahi Hasan.
> Tracking Transience. A month of Sundays (2003). [Moulon] p. 71 with a photo. A website showing changing pictures.

Elam Kimberly.
< Geometry of Design, Princeton Architectural Press 2001. French translation : Géométrie du design. Eyrolles  2005.

Eldridge Alice. Music and artifical life, says Alain Lioret.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 60.

Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT). A small activist group, founded by Ricardo Dominguez, Stefan Wray, Brett Stalbaum and Carmin Karazic, engagé in ECD (Electronic Civil Disobedience) theory and practice.
> FloodNet (1998) [Greene] p. 120-122.

Electronic Shadow. A new type of space, combining real and virtual to build a new perception.

Electronic Literature Organization (ELO)
- Conference in Paris, 2013, part of "Chercher le texte. Locating the Text in Digital Literature" The program (in French); .

Electronic Shadow Founded 2000 by Naziha Mestaoui, architect and Yacine Ait Kaci, film maker.

> Time Drop (2010 c.) presented at Gaité Lyrique, June 2011.
- The studio planned (in 2011) to open a permanent facility in Paris.
> 3 minutes (2003) and other works, commented with pictures in [Lieser].

Elektra. Annual festival in Québec (CA). Organized by Acreq. First edition 1999.
- 2008. Launches Elektra_Lab (performances and seminars by local and international artists)
- 2007. Launches the marketplace for digital arts IMDA.

Elgheryeni: bio art in flowers.

Elgheryeni Amine. Bio art.
< Elgheryamine (2014). Cross-breeding of a bio-colorant ans plant. "A plastic approach in line with the biological paradigm. Aesthetics and Ethics. . See PhDthesis

Eliasson Olafur Wikipedia. Installations.
> Moon (2012 c.) by Olafur Eliasson and Ai Weiwei.
> Your House (2007). Sculputre, laser cut. Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> The Weather project (2003). Presentation in Tate Modern London. Comments in [Quaranta]. p. 21.

Elig Raphael
> Memory (2016) Audiovisual installation, by Laure Milena and Raphael Elig. See Tumblr

Eliza. Simulation of psychologist. See Weizenbaum. In 2012, there is a fun site like Eliza on Cleverbot. Important for digital text generation.
- A 18 pages chapter in [Wardrip-Fruin], also pp. 84 sq.
- Eliza-like programming, for interaction, see [Thimbleby].

el-Khoury Rodolphe. Designer, member of KLF studio.
> Chameleon Lounge (2010). In cooperation with Nashid Nabian. Futuristic furniture, interactive and sensitive.

ELO (Electronic Literature Organization).
- A major part in the Chercher le texte festival (2013).

Eloueini Ammar. Architect.
> Nuhik (2005). Computed folding. Description and photos in [Iwamoto].
> Stage Set for John Jasperse (2003). Mobile stage scenery, for dancers. Description and photos in [Iwamoto].

Elsenaar Arthur. Face representation and control. See expression.
> Artifacial (started 1994). An artistic research into "electro-facial choreography". An exploration of the computer controlled human face, which has unveiled an unknown expressive potential of the human face.

e_Magiciens. History on the Paris ACM Siggraph website.
- 2010 was the last edition. It will perhaps start again.

Em David. 2 D images. Wikipedia : "Em created digital paintings at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC) in 1975 with SuperPaint, "the first complete digital paint system".[1] In 1976, he made an articulated 3D digital insect at Information International, Inc. (III) that could walk, jump, and fly, the first 3D character created by a fine artist.[2]". > Guadalupe (2000 c.) [Wands]
> Escher (1979) Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
> Glacier (1997). [Wands].

Em Marc. Writer, composer, multimedia.
> Boxing Trainz (2010). Music and lightly interactive images.
> Audiogame (2003) [Forest 2].

Emard Justine. Video and augmented reality. Space transformation for the screen.
> Calameo (2010).

EMC. Ecole supérieure des métiers de l'image, du son et du multimédia. Malakoff (Ile-de-France).

Emery Olivier. He has managed the Trimaran studio since 1991. The Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Emissive. 3D applications design and production.

Emonic. Interactive environment by the MIT.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 186.

Empac. Experimental media and performing arts center. At Troy (New-York state).
- Interview of Kathleen Forde, curator, in Digitalarti no 5.

Emshwiller Ed. Wikipedia.
> Sunstone (1979). Animation with digital techniques . [Couchot 2003] p. 45. New York Institute of Technology. A copy in Ina funds.

Encom. "The intersection of technology and games".
- [Rose] quotes Encom's Alan Bradley about Kevin Flynn : "He always knew the secret before any of us. That it was'nt about circuit boards and microchips. It was about people. People whose hopes and dreams he translated into zeros and ones an then right back into pure joy".

Engélibert Jean-Paul. He has collected, into one volume, the integral main fiction texts about artificial humans.
< L'homme fabriqué. Récits de la création de l'homme par l'homme. by Jean-Paul Engélibert. Garnier 2000. (Texts by Hoffmann, Shelley, Poe, Barbara, Bierce, Schropp, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Wells, Panizza, Capek, Huxley , Glish et Carter, with an introduction by Engélibert, and extracts from Ovid, Descartes, La Mettrie, Baudelaire and Truong).

Enghien les Bains. Centre des Arts
- Every year, les Bains numériques.
. Virtualia (2013): revive old illusionist art
- May 2012. letter. On the program, notably :
. Akasha by Yves Rousseau quartet + images by Patrick Volve.
. Rêveries d'une fourmi sur le dos d'un éléphant by the la Om Produck.
- Machines, exposition, April-July 2012.
.< Corps de synthèse, by Sentez Bedenter. Catalog of an exposition in 2009.

Enkel Fritz. The beginnings of "electronic music". The Paul Collaer (1965) standpoint.

Brian Eno : Backside.

Eno Brian. wikipedia. "Perhaps the most popular of present generative artists" (Alain Lioret says). Long passages about him in [Leloup, 2013].
- Will Wright and Brian Eno play with time .Video (2011 c.).
- "Nous vivons un âge des ténèbres numérique" (interview in Libération, 15/11/2010).
< Orpheus in Silicon, interview and graphic games with Brian Eno, William Latham et Paul Schultze Video.
> Ambient 4 : On Land (1982), with Daniel Lanois, Bill Laswell, John Hassell and Michael Brook.
> Ambient 1. Music for airports (1978).
> Another Green World (1975).
> Discreet music (1975).
- "Eno is famed for its admiration and use of generative systems" [Edwards].
- "Since I have always preferred making plans to executing them, I have gravitated towards situations and systems that, once set into operation, could create music with little or no intervention on my part. That is to say, I tend towards the roles of planner and programmer, and then become an audience to the results" [Holmes]. - [Moorefield] p. 52-62, [Berger-Lioret] p. 59.

Enozone. Graphics and interactive applications company.

ENS. Ecole normale supérieure. Sometimes, sessions about digital art.

Ensad Ecole nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs. Has a research structure, Ensalab, which includes the Spatial Media group.

- "As soon as 1984, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs de Paris (ENSAD) was the first to open a computer graphics workshop (Atelier d'images et d'informatique, AII) ". (Bernard Demiaux, Le programme et la main).
< Histoire de l'Ensad. 1941-2010. Ensad/Archibooks 2011.

E-On. software. "Solutions for your 3D natural environments".

Eon Franck. Painter, but digital in cinema
> Untitled (space inside) (2007)

> Epizoo (2000 c.) Marcel Antunez Rocca projects synthetic images as a background and makes his body a subject to a computer program and to audience initiative". Comments in[Garbagnati] p. 149.

Epsenschied Dragan
> Zombie and Mummy (2002). Series, since 2002, by Olia Lialina and Dragan Espenschied. [Greene].
> Assoziations-Blaster! (1999) a cooperative work by Alvar Freude and Dragan Espenschied in 1999, is a website using collectively nods and links, not directly, but from metadata build with keywords.

Epson An important range of printers for art.

Epuré Sherban. Mathematical equations. Output in black and white.
> Cybernetic ceremony (2006 c.) Siggraph 2006.
> Condoddiere (2003). (inkjet prit) [Wands].

Equipo 57. A group of artists. Wikipedia (in Spanish). Geometrical abstract art. But, it seems, not digital.
- Quoted by Darko Fritz in [Lartigaud].

Ercolani Emilien Coordination of Créanum writing team.

eRikm. Videos et music.
> Generescence soustractive (2008) described by Louis-José Lestocart in ArtPress2 May-June-July2011.

Ertel David. UCLA page . Media arts
> Data Burial (2017) by David Ertel and and Symrin Chawla

ESA des Rocailles. Biarritz, France.
> Lucioloscope (2012 c.). This e-book was the result of a workshop. Its title stems from the students promotion "trombinoscope" (group photo) and a hint to the Didi-Huberman's (a philosopher) book "Survivance des lucioles". The work gives both images and sound (in page 9 only). More info. This work has been indicated to us by Nadège Lécuyer, Florence Loewy bookstore in Paris.

Escalle Alain. A film maker, with graphic research.

Escarpit Robert. Professor, humorist, he dealt of digital art in two of his books :
< Le littératron. (Flammarion, 1964). About synthetic literature.
< Honorius, pape ( Flammarion, 1967). About media and a possible future.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 48.

Mauritz Escher : recursion applied to graphics.

Escher Maurits. Makes use of recursion in some of his works.

ESIEA. Ecole Supérieure d'Informatique Electronique Automatique.
- Laboratory RVSE (Réalité virtuelle et systèmes embarqués).
- Laboratory Arnum (transdisciplinary, artistic creation, with a scientific and technical mood).

Ecole Supérieure de Création Interactive Numérique.

Esparza Gilberto . Bio-Art
> BioSoNot 1.2 (2017C). Presented at Siggraph Art Gallery (see post)
> Plantas Autosinteticas (2017). Show at Uqam (Canada)

EspritBD. Digital platform for comic strips distribution. The website EspritBD.
- More in French.

Esra. Ecole Supérieure de Réalisation Audiovisuelle. Facilities in Paris, Rennes, Nice, Skopje and New-York.

Essen Mark 
> The Thrill of Combat (2009). Large pictures in [Lieser].
> Coboyama (2008). Computer game, with artistic aspects. Quoted by [Lieser].

Essl Karl. Composer, performer and teacher of algorithmic composition.

Estapa Jaume.
> Portraif of Georges Brassens (1972). Print. With other portraits In the collections of Victoria & Albert Museum.

Estienne . Ecole supérieure Estienne

D'Estienne_d'Orves Félicie Multimedia. Image, smoke, explosions.
> Venus and Mars (2017). Instalation in Le Havre. See Our post
> Cosmographies (2016)
> Ruines (2016). See our post.
> Etalon lumière (2016) Device with moving light.
> Ovale, Serie Cosmos (2008)

E.toile. A company .
> Côté noir/Côté blanc (2002). Theatre play, by Cécile Huet exclusively written and played on Internet.
< Les nouvelles technologies, vers un au-delà de la scène. L'éclatement spatio-temporel de la représentation. 14 pages in [Garbagnati].
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 104.

Etoy (etoy), a group of European alternative artists, founded 1994 in Zurich. [Greene] p.63-64, 126-128.
> Mission Eternity (2007). Commented in [ Debatty et al. 2011].
> Share Certificate (2001). Commented in [ Debatty et al. 2011] and in [Lieser] with a large picture
> Toywar (1999). Battle on Internet.

Experimenta, meetings in Lyon

Eurographics The European conference for computer graphics. A partner of Siggraph. Afig is also (in practice) the French chapter.

Europavox. Festival in Clermont-Ferrand.

Europe . See our geography.

Eva. A Canadian group. See Projet Eva.

Evangelisti Nicola. Light art.
> Crilex (1999).

Evans Brian. Quoted as algorist by Wikipedia.
< The Quinary—Permuting Meaning with Generative Poetry by Brian Evans. Article online.

Evans Cecile.B Cinema
> Hyperlink or It did'nt happen (2014)

Evans Helen. A member of Hehe group.

> Hypomnemata (2016C) posters about data visualization
> Fossiles de données, (2016C) . Not truly digital, sort of sculptures.

Evolvo, Evolvotron. Proprieraty creation software. See [Berger-Lioret] p. 175.

Evomusart. European Event on Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design. Evomusart 2013
- Page in Evomusart 2011.

Evru (born Alberto Porta, aka Zush)
> Tecura Machine (2001). 16pages with pictures in [Algora].

Evthuhov Victor.
> Tropical fish (1969). Holographic cinema, by Alex Jacobson and Victor Evtuhov. Three pages in [Youngblood], with schema and photograph.

Exonemo. Group of digital artists, founded 1996 by Kensuke Sembo and Yae Akaiwa. (Bootz).
- More in French.


1. Experimenta Media Arts "Australia’s preeminent media arts organisation, dedicated to commissioning, exhibiting and touring the best Australian and international contemporary media art. We operate on a biennial mode".

2. A part of "Rencontres-i" Lyon (France), 2011.

Explore. Modeling, rendering and 3D animation, developped by TDI from 1986 to 1993. The Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Eyebeam Center for Arts & Technology. A non-profit center located in New York City, to promote the creative use of technologies.

< Export Valie. Video. > Voices from an Inner Space . 1988. Video, with Peter Weibel. Cited with picture by [Dreher]

Eyeon Software products.

Eyesweb. Open source sofware for motion capture. Used notably for dance.

Experientiae Electricae. A group founded in 2003 by Natacha Roussel (interactive design), Michel Panouillot (design) and Michael Roy (electronics).
> Interac wearing (2011). See Imal dedicated page.
> Symbiose (2007). Presented by [Aziosmanoff 2015] pp. 261-277.

Eyongakpa Em'Kal. Multimedia installations. One page with pictures in [Dermineur].
> [In]Security7 (2011). Sculpture and video installation.

Eyrolles, boulevard Saint Germain in Paris. The best place in Paris (and probably in the World) for technical books, particularly about computers and graphics.

Eyrolles. From the 1980's to 2000's,it was the main French publisher and bookstore for computing. Perhaps the best in the world, since McGraw Hill New-York has closed its shop around 2005. But in the 2010's, the computing department is shrinking. Two other computing specialist bookshops in Paris have closes, the last one (Le Monde en Tique) in 2015. In 2016, this activity had ended, due to the decline of technical books for computer geeks and users.
- In february 2004, interview in Stic Hebdo of the editorial manager, Eric Sulpice (AH 75).
- More in French.

Ez3kiel. Emergent artistic stage group. ( Wikipedia.)
> The Bottle Organ (2009). Quoted with picture in {Worms,2012].





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