Digital Creation Critical ANalysis. Beheviour. Brush.

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K3DSurf. Developed by Abderrahman Taha.

Ka Wolf. Works with the Lab[au] group. Men in their environment. Audiovisual performance.
> Man in|e|space (2005). [Moulon] p. 16-17, with a photo.

Kaalam. Calligraphic art by Julien Breton. Not very digital, but it is so beautiful that we didn't resist to include it.

Kabakov Ilya et Emilia. "The Kabakov couple has decided to replay on the Net the ambient of their inhabited installations... " (Our translation from Judicaël Lavrador, Beaux Arts magazine 2/2011).

Kabarelectronik . Video and computers for a "cyber trend show", by Legalize Corrine. See comments by Serge Chaumieer in [Garbagnati].

Eduardo Kac : Genesis, an image from the Hyperfiction blog.

Kac Eduardo Page web.
- Painter, philosopher, all ways explorer.
- Our posts and references.
- Many works quoted by [Paul], notably pages 217 et 218. A full 24 pages chapter in [Reichle 2009]

- In 2016 a retrospective in Berlin Website . See also laplaquetournante «From the pink miniskirt to the green bunny". Solo show with 150 documents, video and artworks. "Pornogram, holopoetry, transgenic and bio art, from 1980 to 2016" a «futurespective» curated by Frédéric Acquaviva.
> Aromapoetry (2011c.). Quoted by {Worms,2012].
> Cypher (2009). Quoted with illustration in ArtPress2, May-July 2013.
< Eduardp Kac, by Dominique Moulon. Cendre des arts d'Enghien (France) 2011.
< Telepresence and Bio-art, by Eduardo Kac. University of Michigan Press. 2009, 2012.
> Edunia Seed Pack (2009)
> Edunia (2008). Transgenic flower expressing artist's own DNA in petal veins. Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, May-June-July 2013
< Eduardo Kac. Ecrire avec le vivant. An article of 5 pages gy Annick Bureaud. Art Press March 2007
> Histoire naturelle de l''énigme (2003). Genetical engineering, from 2003 to 2008. [Moulon] p. 115 with photo.
> GFP Bunny (2000). A phosphorescent rabbit. Other OGM have been presented, with scientific aims : transgenic sheep in Uruguay (Montevideo Pasteur Institute, 2012), and Inra (2000)
> Genesis (1999). A complex work. Quoted by [ Popper 2], Bootz, [Berger-Lioret] pp. 108, 112.
> Time Capsule (1997). Performance.
> Uitaporu (1996). Telerobotics. 1996-1999.
> Rara avis (1996).Cited by [Dixon 2007]
> Teleporting and Unknown (1994). From 1994 to1996. Cited by [Dixon 2007].
> Reabracadabra (1985). A digital poem. Youtube.
- [Popper 2] 387-393 : "a strongly technical orientation". [Popper 1] p. 217-218.

Eduardo Kac: Plantimal

> Lagoglyph Animation (2013 c.)
> Plantimal I-VI. (2013 c.) This flower has been produced by adding an immunoglobulin into the flowers genes, giving red veins of a "plantimal", plant and animal at the same time.

Kahn Paul
< The Dickens Web, Storyspace Map (1992) by Paul Kahn, George Paul Landow, Julie Launhardt and Ronnie Peter. Disk, Eastgate Systems, Inc. See History of Computer Art, by Thomas Dreher.

Kahrs John. Film maker, director.
> Paperman (2012). See our critic on the diccans blog.
> Tangle (2010). See a short interview of Kars.

Kalaam. Pseudonym of Julien Breton

Kalliala Martti
> Mafoombey (2005). by Martti Kalliala and Esa Ruskeepää, assisted by Martin Lukasczyk. This work won a competition for a space creation and musical hearing, at the University of Art and Design, Helskinki. The project, explained by [Iwamoto], takes inspiration from sectioning techniques.

Kallin Sten. Computer print.
> Untitled transformation (1978). An image in the Recode project.
< Introduction to Fortran (1972).

Kalpadjian Craig. Photographer.
> Corridor (1997). [Paul].

Kamel Toshihiro.
> CODE_LINE_Yellow (2006 c.). Algorithms and natural plants. A work at Siggraph 2006.

Kamnitzer Peter. Film maker. 7 pages in [Youngblood].
> City-Scape (1968). Directed at the Guidance and Control Division of Nasa. Shows a fancy city.

Kanakassy. Art name of Mansour Ciss.

Kanarek Yael
> World of Awe (1995). [Greene] p. 107-108.

Kanazawa Institute of Technology. Japan.


Kandinsky revisited in 3D by Sophie Lavaud.

Kandinsky Wassily.
Painter and professor at Bauhaus. Consided as the founder of abstract art.
< Wassily Kandinsky. Kandinsky, Complete Writings on Art. Da Capo Press.
< Point et ligne sur plan. Denoël 1970 for the French translation. Original 1911.
< Du spirituel dans l’art et dans la peinture en particulier. Au cœur de la création picturale. Original 1912.  Denoël 1969 for the French translation.
- Herbin works may be taken as a continuation, systematic, of Kandinsky research.
- The PhD thesis of Sophie Lavaud contains a 3D transformation of Kandinksy works. Video of this work, made by Yves Gufflet.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 67. More in French.

Kane Abdoulaye Armin. Plastic artist. Sculpture and animation. One page with pictures in [Dermineur].
> Carnet de voyage (2010).

Kanno So . Multimedia.

Kaplan Frédéric.
La langue comme capital. Presentation.
- Has been a scientist in Sony computer science laboratory (Paris) . Interview AH No 42. In 2010's oriented towards more philosophical issues.
< La naissance d'une langue chez les robots Hermès 2001. SH 38.
< La métamorphose des objets. FYP éditions, France, 2009.

Kaplan Matthew. A specialist of non-photo-realistic rendering. Research statement.

Kapoor Anish. Painter and sculptor.
> Cloud Gate (2004). Quoted by [Lopes].
> Tirs au coin. A painting cannon in Guggenheim museum, Bilbao, Webpage.

Karavan Dani.
- 1970's Monuments with laser lighting.
- [Popper 1] p. 134 "impressive outdoor scenographies", pp. 184-185.
> A tribute to Galileo (1978). Laser in Florence. [Popper 2] p.49-52 comments and photos.

Kaprow Allan. Wikipedia. Cited by [Parfait], pages in [Goldberg 2011].
< Essays on the Blurring of Art and Life. Jef Kelley ed. University of California Press 1993.
< "Happenings" in the New York Scene. 1961. Reprinted in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003] and in the Essays (above).
> Happenings in 6 Parts (1959). Happening. Not yet digital, but [Greene] comments : "Kaprow, a protagonist of Action Painting, introduced in his practice random, interaction and participation" (our free translation).

Karazic Carmin. A member of Electronic Disturbance Theater group.

Karczmar Nathan.
> Vidéo collective (1983). [Forest 2]. Telephone, radio and video.
> Installation Contact (1983). [Forest 2] 24 telephones, in a closed circuit, let spectators dialogue among themselves.

> Karotz (2000 c.). The clever rabbit.
- Notes by Eric Leguay.

Kasselpunk. Computer professional.
> Samurai Remix (2007). Experimental practices. [Greene] p. 87.

Katambayi-Mukendi Jean. Technician and artist.
> Simulen (2010). Quoted with picture by [Dermineur]. p. 20, and one page with pictures p. 72.

Katz Stéphane. [Greene].
< L'écran, de l'icone au virtuel. La résistance de l'infigurable, by Stéphane Katz. L'Harmattan 2004. SH No 27 (concepts).

Katzenberg Jeffrey.
"Il avait relancé l'animation chez Disney. Puis il a créé DreamWorks, son concurrent. Le papa de Schrek, il nous prédit une vie en relief, et pas seulement au cinéma". Télérama 5/1/2010.

Kaulmann Thomas. A member of ASCII-ART-Ensemble.

Kauselmann Oliver. A member of Onesandzeroes.

Z-Machines, by Kawaguchi. A gang of robot musicians.<

Kawaguchi Yoichiro. His page on University of Tokyo site. Algorithms, automata, lights.
> Z-Machines (2013). A gang of robot musicians. With music by Tom Jenkinson's music. Our post.
> The iceberg (2006 c.) Siggraph 2006. Generative art.
> Gemotional (2000 c.) Screen with bumpings.
> Origin (1985) and other works are uoted by [Lieser] with large pictures.
> Mysterious Galaxy (1983).
- [Faure-Walker], [Lioret]] 94-95, comments. [Couchot 2003], [Berger-Lioret] p. 80.
- From his website :
Professor Kawaguchi is an expert on the "Growth model," a self-organizing method to give form to one's rich imagination or to develop one's formative algorithm of a complex life form. As the art or a time progression, a program generates a form and this form is allowed to grow systematically according to a set formula. However, this model is not based on a static process that allows consrtuctive mathematics to take its course. Though observation of eddies and spirals, repetitions of simple form of inner mathematical principles, which are hidden behind the seemingly complex outlook of living creatures, are deduced. Placing subtle forms like that of a conch shell as a starting point, the shapes of ammonite, nautilus, tentacles, plant vines and coral become visual references for this model. The most important concept here is the "recursive structure," which is a repetition of simple rules within complexity. By running a genetic program implemented with this structure, the computer continuously creates multiplying images until it maximizes its memory space. Beginning with an initial shape, the computer generates how the final image appears. Therefore, this work is a way to give an unforeseen form to the progress of time. The model is not intended to create a faithful representations of reality but to produce a new bionomic pictorial space backed by an algorithm. A self-organizing form created by the "Growth Model" represents a creature that sensually moans and squirms and might have existed in the evolutionary past or that may appear in the distant future. It is a "life form of

Kawano Hiroshi. Mainly a designer. Atari archives.
> Art ex Machina (1972). Painting, In the collections of Victoria & Albert Museum.
> Simulated color mosaic (before 1976). See an image in the Recode project
> Red tree (1971). Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture

Kawara On Wikipedia
- One million Years (1999) artist's book, extensive printing of numbers

Kawenga. A local center, with a newsletter, aiming to be "the digital news in the Languedoc Roussillon" region.
- May 2012 issue, January 2012 issue.

Kayat Guy. Stage designer.
- Oedipe Roi (1969). Interactive presentation. Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 37.

> Kaydara (2011). Film. Article by Libération. Impressive "fan film", made by amateurs on a shoe-string budget.

Kazemi Darius. Twitterbots
> Metaphorminute (2012). See the page.

Kazikaki Junichiro. A member of Computer Technique Group.

K Danse: Monster

Kazuhiko Hachiya. Interactive installations, software, dolls, airplanes.
< Inter Dis-Communication Machine (1993). Interactive devices. [Moulon] p.6 shows a photograph " The work is composed of a video camera, transmitters, head mounted displays, batteries, and feathers is a communication system aimed at transmitting and receiving sensual experiences. Used by two people wearing head-mounted displays, the ‘machine’ projects one wearer’s sight and sound perception of the environment into the other one’s display, thus confusing the borders between the identities of ‘you’ and ‘me’.The Inter Dis-Communication Machine allows its wearers to ‘enter’ each other’s body and perception without being able to influence - Quoted by [ Grau] p.283 with a picture, by [Berger-Lioret] p. 97.

K.Danse. A dance company.

In 2023, one of three partners in Ada Arteina Project > Myselves (2019)
> Monster (2014)
> The Tiger's Bride (2013).
> Echo Room (2009).
> Danse e-Toile (2009).
> Para_site (2007).
> Nuit Ecran (2006).
> Gameplay (2005).
> Lovely user (2004).
> Fronter@ (2004).
> Icare Ecart (2003).
> Danse et Toile (2002).
- Quoted by [Berger -Lioret] p. 91.

K.Danse : The Tiger's Bride. A lot of different digital technologies.

The creations include diverse digital technologies :
- physiological sensors (Echo Room, Para_site);
- programmed art (Gameplay);
- image and sound interaction, Max/Jitter (Nuit Ecran , Lovely user 2004/5);
- body sensors, 3D interactive and motion capture (Icare Ecart );
- internet (Danse e-Toile , Fronter@, Danse et Toile )…

Keane Glen. Wikipedia. Animator, writer, drawer. Has mostly worked for Disney.
> Duet (2014). An impressive report about his presentation at Paris ACM Siggraph.
> Bernard and Bianca (1977)

Keane Tina.
> zHer 1978 multimedia work, She, presented at the Hayward Gallery, London, in 1978 was an early example of performance that incorporated live video and slide projections. " ( Wikipedia).

Keene Peter. Kinetic art. Grizot Gallery in Paris. He combines video screens with lights and motors in humorous and sometimes moving contraptions.
> Raoul Haussmann revisited (2004).
> Animated machines (1991).

Keller Patrick. An associate of Fabric|ch group.

Keller Sean
< Automatic Architecture. Motivating form after modernism. Universit of Chicago Press. 2018.

Kelley Heather. Games. A founder of Kokoromi. "A media artist and video game designer. She is co-founder of the Kokoromi experimental game collective, with whom she produces and curates the annual Gamma game event promoting experimental games as creative expression in a social contex". > Fabulous (2008).

Ellsworth Kelly: Spectrum colors arranged by chance II (1951). Image from Geometrica Tumblir

Kelly Ellsworth. Wikipedia. Painter, 1940's.

Kelly Kevin. Artist "artificial life".

Kelomees Raivo.
> Tokyocity.ce (1998). CD Rom. [Popper 2] p. 148 : Linguistic games.

Kemp Martin.
< The science of art. Optical themes in western art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. Yale university press 1990. 

Kendall Robert. He "has been creating interactive multimedia poetry since 1990, making him one of the earliest practitioners of the form. He is the author of a book-length hypertext poem, A Life Set for Two (Eastgate Systems, 1996). His hypertext poetry has also appeared on disk in The Little Magazine and Version Box."

Kenyon Matthew. Bio-art. See Swamp.

Kerbrat Jean-Yves.
< Manuel d'écriture de jeux vidéo. by Jean-Yves Kerbrat. L'Harmattan 2005.

Kerebel Marie-Agnès
> Flascode (2010). Cited by [Bubb]. pp. 155-178

Kerlow Isaac Prints, compositions, landscape films. A Siggraph star. A lead figure in Disney.
> Blue pearl (1998).
- Website and a cute page on Amazon site.
< The Art of 3D Computer Animation Effects. A fourth edition.
- Works in Victoria & Albert Museum.

Kernel Panic (Lyon).
- March 2012, at Boulangerie du Prado, in collaboration with Upgrade! Paris. Oli-Lab and Livestockpixel. The program.

Kerouanton Jean-Louis.
< Creating interactivity of our heritage stored in Museums Experimentation with Château des Ducs de Bretagne History Museum of Nantes, by Florent Laroche and Jean-Louis Kerouanton. Communication at Laval Virtual 2010. Online.

Kersalé Yann. Light artist, with support from EDF foundation.
> Les murs ont des images (1986)

Ke-Sen Huang. Scientist. Rendering information.

Kessler Roland. Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Keucheyan Razmig.
< Le constructivisme, des origines à nos jours.  Hermann2007.

Keyaerts Gauthier
> GaFragments#43-44, interactive installation and performance (2014).

Kheddar Abderrahmane. Interactive Digital Humans, CNRS-UM2 LIRMM, Japan. Linkedin.

Khelil Farah. Sculpture and multimedia. One page with pictures in [Dermineur].
> Techniquque mixte II (2012).

Kickinger Max. Music, "sound branding". A member of Fishing for Compliments.

KIDing. Photography, 2D.
> I love calpe (1999) [Paul].

Hyung-Tae Kim : Blade & Soul.

Kiefer Cedric. Blog.
> Growing Data (2008-2009). Data visualization. 4 pages with pictures in [Bohnacker].

Kieffer Gilbert. Painter and philosopher.
< Que peut la peinture pour l'esthétique ? Paris, Petra 2003.

Kildall Scott. Multimedia, Net art
> Playing Duchamp (2010).

Kim A-Young. Fashion designer, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul. Quoted by Digital Art Revolution.

Kim Hye Kyung.
> Retransmissions 4 (2010). Cited by [Bubb].
> Meditation (2006 c.) Rather sad black and white circles, on traditional Korean paper. Siggraph 2006.

Kim Hyung-Tae. Contributing to video games artist. At Siggraph Asia 2010, he presents a communication Visual Works of Blade & Soul, explaining artistic aspects of this game. "In this presentation, Hyung-tae Kim shares his experience in production of the highly anticipated massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). Blade & Soul and reveals some of the early stages, such as concept art or trailers, on the journey to give life to one of the most popular games today. Focusing on the creation of new characters in the game, he also discusses how art direction and game design influence the way the game is played, how it is marketed to a worldwide audience."

Kim Jihyun.
> Openings (2009). Interactive storefront of Lace (Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions). by Andrea Boeck, Jihyun Kim and Justin Lui. 2 pages in [Klanten].

Unzi Kim: Be-ing in space. Asia emergence in the digital art world.

Kim Unzi. Video
> Be-ing in space (2013 c.) shown at Slick Paris. See our post.

Kimyonghun Shinseungback an artist goup group consisting of Shin Seung Back and Kim Yong Hun.
> Aposematic Jacket (2015). A set of cameras is sparsed onto the coat, and let a possible attacker know that he/she will be filmed, under a simple pression by the wearer. And the data are immediately forecast on the Web.
> Memory (2013) Quoted with a picture by [artpress 2015].

Kim Yoon Ja. Biography. Her artist statement : " My art works are concerned with line, color, energy and the creation of new, improvised forms drifting in and out of multiple space. Full of color, line and informal shapes look like stiff picture. I strive for showing the overlapping the concept of space. I was implemented through the computer to escape the hand drawing. Intent of my art attempt to combination the solid machine and human delineation. And also show the two aspects, which are my characteristic and other people's on one or multiple canvas, through a lot of problems that comes from the discord and confusion by the automation. "

King Kong. There has been three versions of this film: 1933, a80cm puppet , 1976 : John Guillermin in gorilla clothing, 2005, a graphic construction in 3D by Peter Jackson (according to Pascal Pinteau, author of Les effets spéciaux, interviewed by Catherine Ballé in Le Parisien du 11/12/2010.

Kinect. See Microsoft.
> Fable III (2010), transmedia project by Peter Molyneux. Comments in [Rose] : "The emotion engine" . Uses Kinect.

Kircher Athanasius (sometimes wrongly written Kirchner)
< Kircher's Mechanical Composer, a software implementation, by Jim Bumgardner Online. circa 1975.

Kismet. See MIT.

Olga Kisseleva: Time Value (2012). The digital aspects as part of the spectators emotion.

Kisseleva Olga. Artist and art critic.
> Time Value (2012) 8 interactive clocks.
> Artic Conquistadors (2011) . Autogerated map of Arctic zones.
> Crossworlds (2007). This series diverting 2D tags (from objects Internet) : "She uses bidimensional codebars for their graphic quality but also for their terrifying, omnipresence". (our free translation from MCD Hors série 86 (2011)).
< Cyberart, un essai sur l'art du dialogue. L'Harmattan 1998.
- The standpoint of Laurence Hazout-Dreyfus.

Klanten Robert.
< A touch of code. Interactive installations and experiences. edited by Robert Klanten, Sven Ehmann and Verena Hanschke. Berlin Gestalten 2011.

Klar Ernesto. Multimedia artist. Global environment.
> Desface Anacronico (2013). Interactive environment. Haze, video cameras, projectors, ultrasonic speakers, custom software system, people. Interactive light and sound installation, dedicated to Enzo Melandri and Giorgio Agamben.
> Convergenze Passale (2010 c.).

Klayman Melinda.
> Anime Noir-Playskins (2002) by Anne-Marie Schleiner and Melinda Klayman. Greene p. 149.
> Sushi Fight (2001).

Klee Paul.
< Cours du Bauhaus. Weimar 1921-22. Contributions à la théorie de la forme picturale. Editions des musées de Strasbourg 2004.
< Théorie de l’art moderne. Denoël 1964, 1985.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] pp. 30-31.

Klein Ruy.
> Tool Hide (2006). Let us quote [Iwamoto] : "The project manipulates the technical limitations of CNC milling (usinage à commande numérique) to produce ornamentation, using animal hides as a conceptual starting point".

Klein Yves. Wikipedia
Not digital, but not so far from it with it search for absolute bases.
< Yves Klein, l'aventure monochrome, by Denys Riout. Gallimard 2006.
< Yves Klein, machine à peindre by Nicolas Charlet. Editions Complicités 2003.

Klein Yves Amu. Wikipedia (a son of Yves Klein)
- "One of the few artists considered here whose work aims unambiguously for living autonomy" [Whitelaw"].
> Octofungi (1996),
> Lili-Pods (1990 c.).
> Bella (1990 c.).
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 105.
<Mon livre d'Yves Klein, by Arnaud Dubois. Makes translation of text to colors. Published by Sain Calus, 2006.

KLF. Designer studio, grouping Rodolphe el-Khoury, Robert Levit and Steven Fong.
- Their self presentation : "KLF brings together three partners with diverse academic and professional backgrounds to align innovative research with practice. The firm adopts multi-disciplinary methods to collaboratively approach design challenges and opportunities around the world. It uses new media and technology to produce a rich and sustainable built environment. Projects vary in scale and scope form small buildings to urban plans."

Klima John.
> Planisphère permanent of violence and emotion (2000 c.) (Oeuvre not easy to interpret).
> The great game (2008 c.) Oeuvre , about the Afghan war (did not look operational on 1/12/2011). Several pages of comments in Rita Raley : Tactical Media. University of Minnesota Press 2009.
> Ecosystem 2000 (2000).
- Earth 2001 (2001).
- [Popper 2] p. 265 sq.

Mario Klingemann : Neural Glitch.

Klingemann Mario. "He attemps to quantify the essence of Art into n-dimensional parameters using genetic algorithms and Flash" Flicker. Uses GAN (Generative adversarial netwoks).
> Neural Glitch (2018)

Klinkowstein Tom. He combines various techniques into network art.
> Levittown (1882). Slow sweeping TV, videotext, point matrix printing, fast-food. [Forest 2]

Kloepfer Thorsten. A member of Onesandzeroes.

Klonaris Maria et Thomadaki Katerina.
- A radically feminist orientation (see their manifesto).
> Pulsar. Pulsating radio source (2001) , digital video. Described by Louis-José Lestocart, in Artmedia X.

Carine Klonowski
> Un jour sans fin (2016) Protocol, screen capture, argentic print

Kloves Steve. Biographic analysis by Samuel Blumenfeld in Le Monde Magazine /9/2011 (three pages).
> Harry Potter (2001). Kloves is the screenplay author of all the episodes, but for The Phoenix order. The last episode wen out, in 3D stereo, by June 2011.

Klub Distorsion .

The Witch House... At the limits of digital art. Their names : Salem, Mater Suspiria Vision, Modern Witch, o0o00, White Ring, Blëcl Rënbovv, Aids-3D...

- Distortion night on February 2012, with Philippe Laurat, whom some name "the inventor of techno". His presentation.
- Also on stage, The witch house and Unison et Neonbirds with Thierry Théolier, a "performed reading, a corpus of "spams" (out of the web practices called "spampoetry), Hypocalipse. Part of that is online.

- More in French.

Klüver Billy. Engineer assisting Robert Rauschenberg. 1980's, EAT (Experiments in Art and Technology).
- Organizes 9 Evenings, Theater and Engineering. His notes about this subject are published in Interagir avec les technologies numériques (Brussels, Contredanse 2004).
< Texts and pictures from 9 Evenings reprinted with comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].

Knall Hans. Musician. In 1980, takes part in Digital Art (Grand Palais de Paris), organized by Bernard Demiaux

Knapp Alex. Architect and photographer. Cooperated with Renzo Piano studio.
- One of the three partners of Nogovoyages agency.

Knowlton, Studies in perception

Knight Nick. Photographer, interaction. Showstudio
> Taking Liberties (2004). Interaction. 6 pages in [Cameron].

Painter. Research on the borders of psychology. Report by Micheline Domancich in Le Monde Informatique, Feb. 24, 1986.

Knowbotic Research. (Knowbotiq, KRCF)
- Members of this interdisciplinary group, created 1991 : Yvonne Wilhelm, Alexander Tuchachek, Christian Huebler.
- Installations. Global communication.
- [Paul]  several works. c. 1999.
> Data Raum : Mobile Klange (Simulation Space) (1998). [Popper 2] 346-350 (along with other works).
> Dialogue with Knowbotic South (1994). "one of the most advanced interactive installation of its time", according to [Dixon 2007]. which gives two photographs.

Knowbotic research. An event generator to stimulate reflection. Is it art ?

> IO_Dencies (1998).
> Dialogue with the Knowbotic South (1995). 4pages and pictures in [Grau 2003].
- More in French.

Knowles Chris. Combination of image and sound.
> Work in progress (1979).

Knowles Rachel Viadel. Multimedia.
> Life Across Words (2010)

Knowlton Kenneth (Ken). Wikipedia. Cited by [Baudouin].
> Pixellation (1971). Film, with Lilian Schwartz.
> Studies in Perception (1966). Among the very first works of art on computer printers. Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture
- See an image in the Recode project.

Knuth Donald. Wikipedia. A famed theorician and professional programmer. He has done an artistic work on font design and modeling.
< The Art of Computer Programming. Addison Wesley. A grand classical. Still selling in 2012.
- He has created two open source software tools , TeXandMetafont, plus the Computer Modern font, default font for TeX.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 53.

Kobayashi Ryoko Interaction
> Wearable Forest (2008) by Ryoko Ueoka and Hiroki Kobayashi. Six pages and illustrations in [Bost-Crosetto].

Koblin Aaron.
> Bicycle Built for 2000 (2009). Commented on with a picture by [ Debatty et al. 2011].
> eCloud (2007), by Nikolaus Hafermas, Dan Goods and Aaron Koblin. Permanent work in San Jose airport. Dedicated website. Expression on a wall of meteorology data. 2 pages in [Klanten].

Sachiko Kodama

Kodama Sachiko. 12 pages with pictures in [Algora].
- Present in Turbulences II, villa Empain in Brussels (spring 2013).
> Equilibrium Point (2006)
> Work (2006 c.) Sculpture. Organic tower. Fun and beautiful. Shown at Siggraph 2006.
> Breathing Chaos (2004)
> Protrude Flow (2001), with Minako Takeno. Quoted by [Grau] p. 289 with a photo.

Koen Victor . "Digital" realist painting.
> Dark Peculiar (2006 c.) Toys , + photos of objects, + geometry. Social aspects. Siggraph 2006.
> Damsel No 6 (2000 c.).
> Damsel No15 (2000 c.).

K.O. Kid.
> K.O. Kid (1992). A film directed by Marc Caro and produced by Partizan/Midi/minuit with Dominique Pinon and François Hadji-Lazaro. See Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Koenig Michael. Algorithmic composer.
- As well as Xenakis, he retouches up the work after the program output.

Kogan Raquel. Multimedia
Since the 1990's

Kogler Peter. Painting

Kogo Takuji. His Candy Factory platform hosts several projects ([Greene] pp. 115-116).
> Halbeath (2002), created with Young-Hae Chang Heavy industries.
> What an Interesting Finger Let Me Suck It (2001).
> Think The Same (2000).
> Joyful (2000).
> Entangled Smile (1998).

Kohler Mathias. Architect, professor at ETH Zurich.
> The Programmed Wall (2006) by Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler. Educational and experimental work. Using robots. Quoted by [Iwamoto].

Kokoromi. "a group with the intent of promoting videogames as an art form, and experimental gameplay worldwide. The collective consists of game pioneers and curators Damien Di Fede, Phil Fish, Heather Kelleyand Cindy Poremba. Most of the members met in 2005, working on a small game project for a cultural event in Montreal."

Kokyokyoku Nehan. Early electronic music.
> Nirvana Symphony (1957-58). Quoted by 1910-1970. Japon des avant-gardes. Centre Pompidou, Paris, 1986.

Kolas Oyvind.
> Now by then (2006 c.) Transformed photography. Siggraph 2006.

Kolgen Herman. Installations, "audiocinetic sculptor".
> Link.C + Seismik + Aftershock (2016) Audiovisual performances.
> Eotone (2014) by David Letellier and Herman Kolgen. Large dimensions.
> Seismic (2014). Seismic and various waves capture and expression in a performance.
> Train Fragments (2011). Presented within "Québec Numérique" at Gaité Lyrique, Paris 2012.
> Urban Wind (2010). Presented within "Québec Numérique" at Gaité Lyrique, Paris 2012.

Kolker Richard. Multimedia.
> Lost in Space (2010 c.)

Kolkoz. Collective group founded by Samuel Boutruche and Benjamin Moreau.
> Sans titre (détail) (2005) shows their holiday films. [Moulon] pp. 52-53.

Koller Andreas.
> Similar Diversity (2007). with Philip Steinweber. Data visualization. 4 pages with pictures in [Bohnacker].

- [Agoston], [Cocquerez].

Kolimyjec William. Compart page.
> Boxes 1 (before 1977). A picture in the Recode project.

Komura Masao. A member of Computer Technique Group.

Kon Satoshi "a king writer of Japanese animes, too early dead" (Benjamin Rozovas, Technikart 10/2010). Wikipedia
> Perfect Blue (1993). His major work.

Konic Lab, or Konic Thr. A group formed by Alain Baumann and Rosa Sánchez. "Our work is usually based on the idea of questionning this very same technology that we use in our performances and interactive installations".

In 2023, one of three partners in Ada Arteina Project

> EVD58 (2013) Distributed performance (in Spanish). Webpage
> Before The Beep. (2011). The audience can participate in different ways, including texting fro their mobile devices, On Youtube
> Umbrales. 2009). A telematic piece between Barcelona and Brazil. Web page
- since the early 1990's.

Koning Wobb F. Video art. With processing.

Koolhaas Rem. Architect. Wikipedia.
> Seattle Library (2004). Quoted by Terracol with pictures.

Kopit's Arthur
- [Couchot 2007] p. 245. Theatre plus an added virtual space.

Korea. See our geography.

Korneder Hans
> Untitled 8 (1978). An image in the Recode project.

Ko Seung-wok.
> Installation with cell phone (2010). Shown at Incheon festival.

Esmeralda Kosmatopoulos. Conceptual art. Several connected smartphones. Should we say "postdigital"...
> Connected phones (2017), at Variation-Artjaws (perhaps not the right title).

Kosice Gyula. News.
- In the 1940's, uses neon tubes as a material or sculpture.
> Structures lumineuses (1946).


Kosuth Joseph.
[Popper 1] p. 39 "Art as idea as idea".

Kottas Dimitri
< Architecture numérique 2 volumes Nouvelles applications - Nouvelles technologies. by Dimitri Kottas (ed). Links 2013.

Daniel Kottler : Travail et loisir. La main heureuse.

Kötter Daniel. Music composer
> Travail et loisir. La main heureuse (2011). Cited by [Lehmann].

Koven Mark.
> Female Gapee #3 (2006 c.). Siggraph 2006 : Work (photograph). 3D, sort of ?

Kovr.   A group formed Marcha Schagen and Leon Baauww.
> Antisurveillance coat (2016). The coat is a sort of Faraday cage protecting again intrusion our cards or phones. Not properly digital, it seems, but of course protection matters...

Kowalski Piotr. 1927-2004 Wikibooks. Wikipedia.
> MIT<->LyonInformation: Transcript (1998). In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, with the catalog).
> Time Machine (1980) (second version) . "Installation in which the spectator takes part in real time on visual and sound records of his moves, and he can reverse the time evolution) [Couchot 2003].

Koyama Atsushi. Painting. Looks digital but is not (at least as described by Koyama on his website).

Koza John.
- Evolutionist generative art.

Kozel Susan. Performance. Teacher. See also Fondation Daniel Langlois webpage.
> Trajets (2000). Installation and performance.
> Contours (1999-2000) with Kirk Woolford and Ruth Gibson. Vimeo page. Short description in in Interagir avec les technologies numériques, Nouvelles de Danse. Condredanse, Brussell 2004.

KQED. Experimental video workshop at the San Francisco Dilexi Foundation. Was used notably by Terry Riley and Phil Makanna. Quoted by [Youngblood] p. 281 sq.
Other resident artists : Richard Feliciano (composer), Joanne Kryger (poet), William Brown (novel writer), William Allen (painter-sculptor) and Loren Sears (film maker).
Main animators : Robert Zagone (director for video sessions) and Brice Howard, manager.

Kräftner Thomas
> Coded Beauty (2008) Generative software.

Krajewska Elka. [Greene].
> 54:06 (2003).
> 47 Seconds (2002).

Kram Reed. Designer. Page web .

Kramer Axel. Scientist. Refereed publications For example:
< Tools for Constructing the Electronic Sketch Book of Thangka Painting, by Axel Kramer and Ranjit Makkuni. Conferende Tools 89.

Kraus Florence. Music (instrument conception). A member of Orkestronika group.

Krause Dorothy. Rapid prototyping. Presentation in ACM Siggraph Educational Committee.
- Siggraph 2006: iron grid upon painting, parts assembly.

Krawkzyk Robert J. Theorician of generative methods, notably in architecture. For instance :
< Architectural Interpretation of Cellular Automata. Generative Art Conference, 2002.

Krée Nathalie. Sculptor, some digital works.

Kreidler Johannes . Music composer. Cited by [Lehmann].
> Fremdarbeit (2009). Youtube.

Kreis Peter. Painting.
> Accident (1970 circa). See an image in Connaissance des Arts, 2/1974.

Kreisler & Associates, cooperation with the Patterns architects studio.
> Unibodies (2006). Molded forms for walls and ceilings. Two pages in [Iwamoto].

Kremers David. Bio-Art. Cited in [Reichle 2009].
> Oncogene (1992)
> Trophoblast (1992)

Kriegk Jean-Samuel.
< Art ludique. by Jean-Samuel Kriegk and Jean-Jacques Launier. Sonatine 2011.

Kriesche Richard.
> Telematic Sculpture (1995). [Couchot 2003].

Krinsky Menachem. Artistic manager, designer.
> Exposed energy (2010).

KRN. See Dermineur.

Kroitor Roman. Wikipedia. Film maker. Inventor of the Imax system.
> Labyrinthe (1967). Shown at Montréal expo. 3 pages with photos in [Youngblood].

Krolle Kate. Video and drawing. How far digital ?? Page Le Fresnoy

Krueger Myron. Interactive art   (Videoplace 1970's). A major forerunner. Wikipedia. An interview by Ctheory.
- [Popper 2007] 182. Immersion, but not so much interactivity.
- [Couchot 2003] p. 47. Says that he uses sensors on the ground , and the environment reacts.
< Responsive Environments (1977). Reprinted with comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].
> Videoplace (1975) Interactive environment. Described in Wardrip-Fruin (above). See Wikipedia Comments with a large picture in [Lieser] and also in [Dreher].
> Psychic space . 1971. Six pages with pictures in [Dreher] (PDF online).
> Glowflow (1969). Light art.

KSKF. Interdisciplinary platform, oriented mainly on dance and scenography.

Allison Kudla : Growth Pattern
Krypto. A 3D presenter for the TV chain Canal Plus. Designed by Pierre Buffin in 1988 BSCA. See the page in Paris ACM Siggraph.

Kubrick Stanley. Wikipedia.
> 2001, A space Odyssey (1968) . "Many animation films, typical of this period control screens for spatial vehicles". [Willoughby] p. 256. It includes algorithmic music by György Ligeti (selon [Edwards]). Note on the Eric Leguay" blog (2011). > The Shining (2000 c.), with the Lontano music, by Ligeti.
> Eyes wide shut (2000 c.), with the Musica Ricercata by Ligeti.

Kudla Allison. Bio-design, nature, creativity. Allison Kudla (US) is currently living in Seattle, Washington and working at the Institute for Systems Biology. Before that she was an artist-in-residence and faculty member at the Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology in Bangalore, India. In her most recent projects, she has been exploring the combination of patterns, fabrication technologies and plant tissue culturing to make living installations. - She is currently (Spring 2013) a part of a touring exhibition called “Intimate Science”.
> The Search for Luminosity, was published in “Art + Science Now” by Stephen Wilson.
> Capacity for (urban eden, urban error)
> Growth Pattern (2012 c.) is included in BioDesign: Art + Science + Creativity, by William Meyers .

Kudlak Patrycja . Multimedia. Video, interaction.
> Who are you? (2011). Description in Random Magazine.

Kudless Andrew. Architect. CCA webpage. In 2004, he founded Matys studio (architecture and design). Specialty : complex geometry, digital construction, procedural techniques.
> C_Wall. 2006. Cellular aggregation of structures. [Iwamoto].
> P_Wall. 2006. [Iwamoto] : "P.Wall investigates the self-organization of two material - plaster and elastic fabric, to produce evocative visual and acoustic effects".
> Manifold (2004). Honeycomb foldings. [Iwamoto].

Pierre Kueny : Xmas cart, 2011.

Kueny Pierre. Artist, teacher in Paris 8 Uniersity. Manager of the cultural center Le Chaplin in the Val Fourré (Mantes, Ile-de-France). A member of Les Algoristes.

Kuhn Benoit . Edition manager of Pixelcreation.

Kulka Irena Scientist, ETH Zurich.
< Advances in expressive animation in the interactive performance of a Butoh dance. by Jürg Gutknecht, Irena Kulka, Paul Lukowicz and Tom Stricker. Communication, 16 pages in [Adams].

Kulesza Françoise
> Espace 2011. Ink.

Kuntzel Thierry.
> Four seasons minus one (1993). Presented at Jeu de Paume, 1993.
- Comments by [Murray], [Couchot 2007] p. 179., [Parfait] pp. 326-327
- Analysis by par Anne-Marie Duguet in Déjouer l'image : Créations électroniques et numériques (Paris, Jacqueline Chambon, 2002).

Laura Kurgan : Million dollar blocks

Kunz Westerhoff.
< L'homme-machine et ses avatars. by Dominique Kunz Westehoff and Marc Atallah. Vrin 2011.

Kupresanin Andrew. "Art director, digital designer".
> Nadia (2011). A camera which evaluates the aesthetic value of what it sees. A note by Grace McDunnought


Kurgan Laura. Page Web. Architect, of Spatial Information Design Lab at the Columbia University (New York).
> You are here (2005 c.). Work about GPS, and critical notes about a TPI-NGS pages.
> Million Dollar Blocks (2000 c.). This project shows the high cost of excessive incinerations.

Kurokawa Azusa. Painter and dancer.
- Page on Katatsumuri. Facebook, page.
- Corps-Cosmos (2012), with Antoine Schmitt. See our blog.

Kurokawa Ryoichi. Visual abstract installations and live performance.
> Uunfold (2016C) Video with an immersive effect due to several large screens.
> Constrained Suface (2016C)
> Oscillating Continuum (2013). See Triangulation Blog. Presented at Turbulences II Turbulences II, Villa Empain 2013.
> Octfalls.
- Interview by Laurent Catala in MCD Sept-Oct. 2009.

Ryoichi Kurokawa: Oscillating continuum.

Kurtel Deniz. Multimedia, Led.
- A two pages article about him by Laurent Diouf, in Digitalarti no 6.

Kurzweil Raymond.
Computer scientist and manager, fascinated by the post-human issue. He has supported Harold Cohen in his computer art.
< The singularity is near. London, Duckworth 2009.
< The age of spiritual machines (2000 c.).

Kusahara Machico.
> Mobile Feelings 1 (2001). [Grau] shows an experience with this work, produceb with Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau. With color pictures.
< Device art : a new approach in understanding Japanese contemporary media art. 29 pages in [Grau].

Kushiyama Kumiko. Interaction. For instance, thermal sensors.
> Thermoaesthesia (2006 c. ) Siggraph 2006, the work and a conference presentation.

Kuwakubo Ryota Artist of objects.
- Quoted by Machiko Kusahara in hnis paper Device art : a new approach in understanding Japanese contemporary media art. [Grau] p.292.

Kuziela Andrzej.
> Trick or treat (2010). The author explains this vividly colored illustration about Halloween, in 3DMag 1-2/2011.

Kwastek Katja.
< Aesthetics of Interaction in Digital Art. MIT Press 2013.
- Takes part in [Ricardo].

Kyburz Hanspeter. Composer, using notably L-systems.
> Cells (1997). Comments in [Edwards].
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 60.

Kyttänen Janne. Iconic design.
> Generative Lamps (2007). Light art and sculpting. 4 pages with pictures in [Bohnacker].

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