Digital Creation Critical ANalysis. Beheviour. Brush.

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In 2023, one of three partners in Ada Arteina Project

Babbitt Milton. Serialist musician. [Edwards]. Wikipedia.

Babelli Gazira. Performance and actions in virtual worlds. A transposition of Dada and Pop art.
> Save your skin (2007) and other works quoted by [Lieser] with large pictures.

Babiole Cécile. Focused on media, and notably sound. "Revisiting technologies is my preferred topic". She has been a member of several group: Nox (industrial music) in the 1980's, he 2000''s and to day Le Sans Titre (a group or curator-arists). > Cerfitied Inaccurate (2013). Installation-performance
> Bzz (2014). Sound installation.
> Miniatures (2013). Audiovisual kits, 3D prints.

Cécile Babiole: Certified inaccurate.

Baboni-Schillingi Jacopo. Composer.
< The Origin of the World (2013c.). Images by Miguel Chevalier.
- In 2011. takes part in Capture.
< La musique hyper-systémique. Paris, Editions Mix, 2007.
> Trois mythologies et un poète aveugle (1997) by Jean-Pierre Balpe and Jacopo Baboni Schilingi.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 61.

Baby Jean-Philippe Esad d'Amiens
> La marionette numérique (2016). Projet combinant marionnette et vido-projection. par Philippe Baby avec Sylvie Baillon et David Durand.


Babski Christian. Associate in the Fabric|ch group.

Bach Johan Sebastian. The most "numerical" of all artists!
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 21. More in French.

Bachini Gwendaline Multimedia dance projects.
> A#3 Immersive Dance Media (2016-2018) See web page
> Tactim (2008) . Interactive dance
> Lieulinke (2001).

Johan-Sebastian Bach, digital through the keyboard and the strong mathematical definition of pitches.

Bacigulpi Paolo. Science fiction writer.
< The Windup Girl. 2009 . A sort of fusion/fight... between automata and humans.

Badiou Alain. A communist philosopher.
< Matrix, machine philosophique, by Alain Badiou, Thomas Benatouil, Elie During, Patrice Maniglier, David Rabouin and Jean-Pierre Zarader. Ellipses 2003. See Matrix.

Baecker Ralf.
> Random Access Memory (2016) 3D printing
> Mirage (2014)
> The Conversation (2009). "Pataphysical processing environment" [Klanten].

Baier Viola. Cinema
> Wedding Cake (2013). Animation short.

Baig Haroon. Interaction. Multimedia.
> Twitwee Clock (2010). A modifiec cuckoo clock, connected to Internet.

Bailey Jeremy
> Ice Clock (2016) . 3D print alternatively developping and melting.

Baillon Sylvie
> La marionette numérique (2016). Projet combinant marionnette et vido-projection. par Philippe Baby avec Sylvie Baillon et David Durand.

Bainbridge William Sims.
< Online Worlds : Convergence of the Real and the Virtual. Springer 2010. Some analyses with figure.

Baker Christopher.
> Hello World ! (2008). Installation web. [Moulon] pp. 77 with photo.

Baker Rachel. Also known as Trina Mould.
> Platform (2002). [Greene].
> Mr.Net.Art (1998), by Rachel Baker and Kass Schmitt. . [Greene]. Website.
< Creative and social interaction before Web 2.0 Video of an intervention.

Baker-Smith Ben. Multimedia.
> Infinite Glitch (2011 c.). A note in Random Magazine.

The Bakery. "The Bakery is a computer graphics company developing innovative software solutions, designed to bring both artistry and productivity to new heights" (according to their website).

Balac Marion
> Paola – Feel like home
. (2016) Framed photograph and text.

Balandier Georges.
< Nouvelles images, nouveau réel, in Cahiers internationaux de sociologie. PUF 1987.

Baldasseroni Alessandro. Modeling and matte painting.
> Infestation (2010). 3D creature developed for a short film of Francisco Ruiz Velasco. The making-of in 3DMag, 1-2/2011

Baldwin Dan
> Flashmimation (2006 c.) Siggraph. New style, using Flash software and the vectorial mode.

Baldwin Lew
> Good World (2002) A website reinterpreted. [Greene].

Baldwin Sandy West Virginia University page. Director of the Center for Literary Computing.
> Svaha, Tantra, Death: A Second Life (2013). Performed with Alan Sondheim during the Chercher le texte festival (2013).

Balestrini Nanni, a member of Gruppo 63. Wikipedia (italian). See [Berger-Lioret] p. 36.
> Tape Mark II (1963) in the years 1960 et 1970. Combinatory poems done with IBM computers. Bootz.
> Tape Mark I (1961) 1962 version on line. The first stroph :
La testa premuta sulla spalla, trenta volte
più luminoso del sole, io contemplo il loro ritorno
finché non mosse le dita lentamente e, mentre la moltitudine
delle cose accade, alla sommità della nuvola
esse tornano tutte, alla loro radice, e assumono
la ben nota forma di fungo cercando di afferrare.

- Cited with picture by [Dreher].

Balla Peter Architect and designer. Cooperation with O.N. Bartos, mathematician, in 1965. Compart page.

Ballon Jean. Exposes at Animé 2019.

Balmond Cecil. Architect. Founded the Arup Agu studio. Wikipedia
> Battersea Power Station (project).

Jean-Pierre Balpe Text generation ad infinitum.

Baloste Igor. See Wikipedia. Musician et plastic artist.
> Nu imposé (2013), by Igor Baloste and Tanya Iskona.
> Les destinées (2011).
> La République de l'écran magique (2008) Electrop songs.

Balpe Jean-Pierre. Generative art applied to text (written spoken, integrated in global works ).
- Poetry and transmedia: Balpe takes part in the Movens meeting with his Babel Poesie generator.
- His main blog : Le sens de la vie. His presentation in the Who's Who . Quoted several times by [Berger-Lioret].
> Capture (2011). Collective work, see Capture.
> Rien n’est sans dire (2001). Comments by Bootz.
> Contextes de l'art numérique. Hermès Science 2000.
> Barbe-Bleue (1998).
> Trois mythologies et un poète aveugle (1997) by Jean-Pierre Balpe and Jacopo Baboni Schilingi.
< L'art a-t-il besoin du numérique ? Colloque de Cerisy. by Jean-Pierre Balpe and Manuela de Barros (ed.). Hermès-Lavoisier 2006.
< Hypertextes, hypermédias. Créer du sens à l'ère numérique. by Jean-Pierre Balpe, I. Saleh, D. Lepae and F. Papy. Hermès/Lavoisier 2003. AH No 125(news).
< L'art et le numérique, Jean-Pierre Balpe ed. . Les cahiers du numérique, vol. 1, no 4, 2000  Paris, Hermès Science.
< La toile. by Jean-Pierre Balpe. Cylibris Editions 1999.
> ROMANS(roman) (1996). In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, including the catalog presentation). .
< Techniques avancées pour l'hypertexte. Hermès 1996.
< Hypertextes et hypermédias. by Alain Lelu and Imad Saleh. Hermès 1995.
< Hyperdocuments, hypertextes, hypermédias. (et al.) Eyrolles 1990.
< Initiation à la génération de textes en langue naturelle. Examples of Basic programming. Eyrolles, 1986.
- Historical summary of "total art" works, by Alain Vuillemin in his book Théâtre et nouvelles technologies (Editions universitaires de Dijon, 2006).

Balzerani Margherita Historian and art critic, specialist of video games.

Bambagioni Aurélien. Web
> Combeback (2010, in progress). Art on a tablet.

Bangart Colette and Charles Page. Siggraph page.
"Colette paints pictures every day. Jeff writes algorithms. Over many years, the discussion has grown to encompass computers, software, plotters, ..."

Band in a box. Compositing/arrangement software on the web.

Carl Banks: IOCCC Flight simulator. The image is under too low resolution. Goto the website to see it properly

Banks Carl
> IOCCC Flight Simulator (1998). Wegsite page.

Banz & Bowinkel . Giulia Bowinkel and Friedman Banz
> work (2015C) large digital painting

Baraga Martin Bricelj. Interaction, performance.
> Monolit2015
> Fake Up (2003). Urban media hack.

Baranoff-Rossiné Wladimir Images generated by music, 1920's. Quoted by par [Popper 1] pages 127-129 and [Popper 2 ] p. 15.  The optophone.

Baratelli Jérôme. See [Jouable].

Barbadillo Manuel. Painting. Wikipedia.
> Aeleana (before 1976). See image and reconstituted code in the Recode project.

Barbanneau Yorick A member of Gigacircus group.

Barbanti Roberto
< Les origines des arts multimédia. L'influence des mnémo-télé-technologies acoustiques sur l'art. by Roberto Barbanti. Lucie Editions, Nimes, France, 2009.
< De l'ultramédialité dans l'art: visions techniciennes. Théétète, 2004.

Barbaud Pierre. Chargé de recherches in musical computing at compagnie Bull (1958-1976) then project leader at Inria. Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] pp. 58,64,140. Quoted by [Baudouin], as forming the BBK group with the acousticist Frank Brown and the computer specialist Geneviève Klein.
- Association Pierre Barbaud. Website.
- Quoted by Assayag (Asti 2001 proceedings), with R. Blanchard.
< Initiation à la composition musicale automatique, Dunod 1966.
A set or works are grouped under the Musique Algorithmique title.

Barbosa Pedro. Presentation by Bootz. Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 162.
> Sintext (1992) by Pedro Barbosa and Abílio Cavalheiro Online.

Barbottin Marie. Dance
> Effigies (2011) . PDF file

Barcena Carlos
> Alcina (1998). Haendel's oeuvre immersed in digital images . [Couchot 2003]. Comments on Libération, 2013.

Barcia-Colombo. A point just passed.

Barcia-Colombo Gabriel (or Gabe). Video art. Wikipedia.
> A point just passed (2011). Mixed media. Video, sculpture. Shown at Show Off 2013.
- In 2008, an award for a video work.

Bard Perry
> Man With A Movie Camera : The Global Remake (2007). [Moulon] pp. 77-78 with a photograph.

Bardiot Clarisse
< Adrien M. et Claire B. : la neige n'a pas de sens. Interview par Clarisse Bardiot. L'oeil d'Or, 2016.
< Arts de la scène et technologies numériques : les digital performances. Online at Olats.
- Rekall. An open-source environment to document and analyze the creation processes and make simpler a recall of works based on obsolete technologies.
< 9 evenings, Theatre and Engineering . Online at Fondation Langlois.

Bardot Brigitte. A poster showing her was, in the 60's, printed on a bar printer. A communication gadget... but impressive (We were there !).

Bardou-Jacquet Antoine. [ Bootz].
> The Child (1999), Abstract calligraphy.

Studio Bardula Betweeen decoration and geomatric art, with lights

Barham Anna. Cinema
> I feel love (2014)

Barjavel René. Science fiction writer.
< Cinéma total, essai sur les formes futures du cinéma. Denoël 1944. (Text available online). Some quotations in the French version.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 113.

Barjovski Praline . Aka PralineB. Artist name of Sylviane Diop.

Dusan Barok, with La Société Anonyme : XVIII.

Barok Dusan. Founder of Monoskop.
> XVIII (2013), with La Société Anonyme and Marja Wilgenkamp (bookbinder), "A breath of life, Sonnet XVIII read and recorded, protected from bitrot, software decay and hardware failure via a transformation from magnetic transitions on a disk to ink on paper. " > The SKOR Codex (2012), with La Société Anonyme,
> The SKOR Codex (2012), with La Société Anonyme,
> FaceLeaks (2010),
> Computer with a Printer (2006),
> Matrica slovenská (2006),
> 22.2.2001 (2001).

Baron René-Louis. Wikipedia . Composer and programmer.
> Medal (2001). Automated musical composition device. Does not seem (in Sept. 2011) deliverable.

Barrachina Brian
> Motion poetry (2013), by Brian Barrachina, Douglas Duteil and Cassandra Ribotti. Created for the Chercher le texte Festival.

Barratt Virginia One of the founders of VNS Matrix.

Barrer Patrick F.
< Le double jeu du marché de l'art contemporain. Censurer pour mieux vendre. Favre 2004.
< (Tout) l'art contemporain est-il nul ?
Favre 2000.
< Le marché de l'art aujourd'hui. Carré d'art 1993.
< Quand l'art du XXe siècle était conçu par des inconnus. AIM/Carré d'art 1992.

Barret Edward
< The society of text
. Hypertext, hypermedia and the social construction of information. Edward Barret (ed.) The MIT Press 1989.

Barret Lionel. Founder with Bernard Legaut of the Gamr7 company, specialist in procedural content creation, in particular about urban environments.

Pascale Barret : This obscure side of sweetness is waiting to blossom.

Barret Pascale. Multimedia.
> this obscure side of sweetness is waiting to blossom (2016)
> La Passe (2007). Graphics.

Barron Bebe. Music composer. Wikipedia.
< Forbidden Planet (1956) , a science fiction film loosely based on William Shakespeare's The Tempest, by Louis and Bebe Barron. The first entirely electronic score for a film.
< Heavenly Menagerie. (1950). by Louis and Bebe Barron. The first electronic music for magnetic tape composed in America.

Barron Louis. Wikipedia.
< Forbidden Planet (1956) , a science fiction film loosely based on William Shakespeare's The Tempest, by Louis and Bebe Barron. The first entirely electronic score for a film.
< Heavenly Menagerie. (1950). by Louis and Bebe Barron. The first electronic music for magnetic tape composed in America.

Stéphan Barron: Daedalaean, Labyrinth.

Barron Stéphan. Artist and writer. Multimedia and sociology. Ethical orientation.
- Wikipedia. Artistic portfolio (PDF, in French)

La sculpture labyrinthe 3Dedalus, se décline maintenant sous 3 formes 
- Installation sonore en spatialisation numérique
- Sculpture impression 3D de taille variable suivant les matériaux et les budgets de production
- Série de tirages photographiques issus d’artefacts de google street view.
- Vidéo sur

Site Technoromantism. See in particular L'art contemporain en Languedoc Roussillon.
> Daedalean Labyrinth (2014). Web page This cubic labyrinth is formed by stacking 25 QR codes tracing the path of Leopold Bloom, hero of James Joyce's Ulysses through the streets of Dublin. This art project is related to Stéphan Barron's Earth Art and Technoromanticism. It is also following his QR artworks specially White QR on white. In 2015, the work is proposed under several forms : sound (digital spatialized), 3D print of different sizes and materials, photographic prints using Google Street views artefacts. See the video.
< Technoromantisme. L'Harmattan 2003. AH No 127 (biblio).
- [Popper2] p. 366-369 presents :
> Com-post (2000),
> Ozone (1996). =

de Barros Manuela. Philosopher and art theorist, lecturer at Paris 8 University, Art contemporain et nouveaux médias Laboratory.
< L'art passe à la machine. A paper in Le Monde, 0ct.20, 2018. About Le Portrait d'Edmond de Belamy, by the Obvious Group.
< Magie et technologie. UV Editions, 2017
< L'art a-t-il besoin du numérique ? Colloque de Cerisy. by Jean-Pierre Balpe and Manuela de Barros (ed.). Hermès-Lavoisier 2006.

Barry Robert. Typically a conceptual artist. But some of his works certainly use computers. Wikipedia
> On billion colored dots. (2010 c.). A printed work. A text on Specific

Bartels Richard H.
< Mathématiques et CAO. Beta-splines. by Richard Bartels, John Beaty and Brian Barsky. Hermes 1988.

Barthélémy Jérôme. Team leader for online services, Ircam.
< Digital data perenniality (in Fench)

Bartholl Aram
> Obsolete Presence (2017)
> Map (2011). Rencontres d'Arles. Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, May-June-July 2013.
> Wow (2009). Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, May-June-July 2013.
> Map (2007). Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, May-June-July 2013.
> Random Screen (2005). Light installation . [Moulon] p. 107 with photo.

Bartlett. Filter. See [Foley].
> Moon (1969) "A purple face appears in the sky and is fragmented into infinity"
> Offon (1967). Six pages and a color picture in [Youngblood]. Color film 16mm. "Spectral breakdown and videographic metamorphosis".

Bartnig Horst
> No Title (1979) Plotter, feltti pen on paper. quoted with picture by [Lieser] 2015.

Bartoli Kevin. A member of RYbN group.

Basanta Adam. Sound but also video.
> A truly Magical Moment (2016). Interactive kinetic scupture. See a description in Data Dating show catalog.

Baschz Leeft. A "multimedial visual artist". The website is difficult to be used.
> MasterPiece 2.0. (2010). With Seflcontrolfreak. Interactive creation on the Web, combining analog and digital means.

Base San . Dynamic painting. Page web. See demo.

Basel. See our "Tourist Guide".

Basset Klaus Painting
> Kubus Series (1976). Note in Recode project.

Bastit Tristan. Personal page . A member of Oupeinpo.
< En pirogue sur le fleuve pixel. on CD-Rom, published by Alain Mignien.
< Les évanouissements of L. V. Gogh, "oeuvre molle" made for Oupeinpo.

Baticle Yveline.
< Clés et codes de l'image, by Yveline Baticle. Éditions Magnard, 1985.

Bationo-Tillon Anne.
< When augmented reality enriches museum visit:. Lessons learned. by Anne Bationo-Tillon, Pascal Houlier and Isabelle Marchal. Orange Labs. Communication at Laval Virtual 2010. Online.

Michel Batlle : he sculpts, but also performs in multimedia environments.

Batlle Michel. Painter, sculptor, new medias. See his website.
- More in French .

Battey Brett
> Autarkeia Aggregatum (2006 c.). Meditation on the minimum of live attacks and discrete events. Theoretical presentation at Siggraph 2006.

Battier Marc
> Stances à Hélène (1996). See Bootz.

Battcock Gregory
< New Artists Video. A critical anthology. Edited by Gregory. Dutton, New York 1978.
< Minimal art. A critical anthology. Edited by Gregory Battock. Introduction by Anne M. Wagner. University of California Press 1968.

Bauchard Franck. Joint manager of La Chartreuse, and leader of CNES (Centre national des écritures du spectacle, National center for show writing).
- Interview by Anne-Cécile Worms in MCD Sept.-Oct. 2009.

Baude Christopher.
< Porter le monde virtuel dans le monde réel, et réciproquement . Presentation at Siggraph 2006.
> Balloons (2006 c.) .

Baudelot Philippe. Digital art curator and consultant. See his interesting blog about digital performances and culture (not operational on May 2017)
< Roots. From the magic lantern to immersion. 4 pages in [Worms 2012}.

Baudouin Olivier
< Pionniers de la musique numérique. Editions Delatour, Paris, 2012.

Baudot Jean. A computer professional.
> La machine à écrire (1964). Detailed presentation by Bootz.
- Free verse with the Phrase (1964) software. In 1967, the Rephrase software writes the show "Equation pour un homme actuel", by Pierre Moretti.

Pascal Bauer : The Circle (2012).

Bauer Andrej. Artist using random coding, with Caml language developed by Inria.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 66.

Bauer Pascal. 3D and 2D works, with an algorithmic and/or robotic base.
> Notre bon plaisir (2015)
- Exposition in Saint Denis (2012). See page on Bauer website, with comments by Anne-Marie Morice, curator of the show and manager of Synesthésie.
> Project T (2010 c.).
> Petit marcheur (2009). A sceen ... walks along a metal line.

Bauffe Nicolas. Musician, instrument designer.
> Poème percutant (2013). Performance by Philippe Bootz, Nicolas Bauffe, Claude Moreau and Jean-Pierre moreau during the Chercher le texte festival (2013).

Bauhaus. Had impact on the first times of computer art. See Nick Lambert.
- About performance, choregraphy, see [Goldberg 2011], notably about Schlemmer, pp. 99-120 with pictures.

Baumann Alain. A member of Konic Thr. Musician, multidisciplinary artist and researcher and developer of innovative audiovisual instruments. Responsible of the development of the software and hardware used in Kònic Thtr 's projects.

Baumann Kurt. Algorithmic art. His website : Artificial art.
- Quoted by [Popper 1]103 104 134. Polaroïd efffect.

Baumer Wolfgang. Painting (computer graphics) in 1963/1964. Compart page.

Bayes, Bayesian. See [Cocquerez], [Gonzalez], [Siarry].

Bayle Julien. "A minimalist sound and visual artist working at the juncture of sound, visual and digital data".
< Disruption (2014). A complex work. Image, sound, network.
< Project 1111 (2013).

Bayle Laurent.
< Electric Body, le corps en scène. Laurent Bayle ed. BeauxArts magazine/Cité de la musique 2002.

Bayo Guillem Music
> Goma (2012). Animated object

Bayrle Thomas. [Popper 2] (p. 101) : "Originally relying on simple pictograms for his compositions, in the 1960's he began to condense together the prefabricated parts that construct what can be called superimages".

Bazin André. Cinema theorist [Murray].

BCL. A group formed by Georg Tremmel and Shiho Fukuhara. Bio-Art. "The BCL is an artistic research framework that aims to explore the relations, congruencies and differences of biological and cultural codecs through artistic interventions, social hacking and basic research. BCL is interested in the relationship between art and science in general, and between media art and bio science in particular. The interest is not so much in the new possibilities of artistic expressions, that the emerging biotechnologies make possible, but rather in the social implications that the widespread adoption and application of biotechnology will create. The research of the BCL is speculative and forward-looking, whereas the projects are firmly situated in the present social context and current climate. The projects aim not to be simply answers to real problems, but rather aim to be explorations of the context and systems behind the artistically and socially relevant issues. " (2013) > Common Flowers/White Out (2010). Debatty et al. 2011].

Bear Liza. Works mainly on communication topics. See her Webpage.
> Sendreceive (1977): several hours of interactive transmission with Willoughby Sharp, Sharon Grace and Carl Loeffler. [Paul] shows the work (performance).

The Beatles. Their recordings are still mainly analog, but they mark a progress with the four tracks EMI recorders. See [Moorefield] pp. 26-35.
< The Supercollider book, edited by Scott Wilson, David Cottle and Nick Collins. Foreword by James McCartney. MIT Press 2011.

Beau Cécile.
> Sporophore (2014). Installation, not digital.
> Cosmogonie (2012), with Nicolas Montgermon(. Installation. ... a heap of ashes on the ground, with a moving center, quite like an extinct fire or vulcano. A form of kinetic art.
> Vallen (2009). Sculpture with sound and movement.

Beaudoire Théophile
< Musique typographique. Manuel de typographie musicale. Paris 1891. A contribution to music scores digitization.

Beauvais Laurence
< CD/DVD : Le guide de la gravure. by Laurence Beauvais. Dunod/01 Informatique 2003.
< Le guide de la photo numérique by Laurence Beauvais, Christophe Blanc, and Jean-Luc Goudet Dunod 2003.
< Le guide de la vidéo numérique, by Laurence Beauvais, Thierry Gérard and Stéphan Schreiber. Dunod 2003.

Bébié-Valérian Gaspard and Sandra. Form the group Art-Act. They have founded Oudeis, in Le Vigan (see our Geographical guide) , and manage this structure, dedicated to digital art.

Bec Louis. See [Lioret] p.137, [Berger-Lioret] p. 102.
> Melaskunodousse (1996). A picture in [Grau 2003].

Bécard Thomas. Editor-in-Chief. Writes frequently on digital issues.

Bechetoille Romain. Video author and performer.
Hellocoton ).
Galerie Charlot
indicates :
- 2004 Mixes videos with several dj in Paris at La Flèche d'Or
- 2006 Sets a videoprojector on his car's top and begins wild projection at night, and in other places.

Beck Stephen Video synthesis.
- Cited with pictures by [Dreher].

Beckman Ericka. Cinema
> Hiatus (1999)

Beckman Otto. + 1997. Painting. Website. Notice in Dada Compart .
> Untitled (1960 c. ). See an image in the Recode project (not operational on June 2017).

Beckwith Megan. Research Artist, Deakins University (Australia). Choreography and dance. On june 2017, the site does not mention Megan.

Bédard Crystelle. Graphic a
- 2011. Takes part in Capture. Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 61.

Bedford Interactive Institute. Cited by [Dixon 2007].
> The Dance Disc (1989) "an early example of an interactive dance analysis disc" (Dixon).

Beech Barney. Websites creation.
< Nouvel univers graphique pour Rankin. How have been designed the websites dedicated to this famed photographer. (4 pages in Computer Arts, 2/2011).

Beer. Atmosphere models, see [Ebert].

de Beer Sue.
> Making Out With Myself (1997). A video homage to Photoshop [Greene]

Beesley Philip . Sculptor and architect. Stage setting and stage mountings. .

Behar Alain.
> Até (2012) at the Bernardines, Marseille, January 2012. The announcement .

Beiguelman Giselle. Aka Desvirtual. A poet. On the borders of text and graphics.
> Poetrica (2000). A collection of texts. Presented by Bootz.

Beijing Institute of Technology. School of Optoelectronic Engineering.

Bekey George. Roboticist. Takes part in the Telegarden project (see Ken Goldberg).
< The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, by Patrick Lin, Keith Abney and George Bekey. MIT Press 2012.

Béland Véronique. Multimedia, interaction.
> As we are blind (2016). Interactive installation with player piano. Music by Quentin Denimal. Computer technology, Guillaume Libersat.
> This is Major Tom to Ground Control (2012). MUltimedia installation.
> 331 questions posées par d'autres (2009). Book + sound track.

Belfort Group. Painting
>Untitled (before 1976), several works. See images in the Recode project (not on line on June 2017).

Belgium. See our "geographical guide".

Belhocine Lyès. Multimedia. One page with picture in [Dermineur].
> CubiiC (2011).

Belic Milija. Wikipedia
- Exposes at Animé 2019.

Belin Valérie. Photography
> Untitled, Models II Series (2006). Quoted with a picture by [artpress 2015].
> Bodybuilders (1999)

Bélisle Marie
> Scriptura et Caetera
(1999), by Marie Bélisle, André Savard and Michel Du Bois. A set of poems and short texts which change according to geometrical shapes. See Bootz.

Bell Labs. A high place for digital art, at least in the 60's. Specially through the EAT group.

Bell Larry. Interaction. (The website is rather tiresome).

Bellabas François, aka Bellabas B.
> Driving Hyperreality (2014). Digital manipulations of images.

Bellanger M.
< Traitement numérique du signal, théorie et pratique. Masson 1987. A classical book, but rather vintage in 2012.

Beloff Zoe. "Sleepwalker cinema".
> The influencing machine of Miss Natalija (2001). [Murray] pp. 186-192, comments with a picture.
> Influencing machine (2002). Comments by [Grau] pp. 137-139 with two pictures.

Belson Jordan. At first a painter, Belson came to cinema in 1947, making coarse animation with cards. Then he explored analog electronics. But still not the computer. A full chapter in [Youngblood], plus two color pictures page.
> Allures (1961).
> Vortex Concerts (1957-1960). A series of concerts by Henry Jacobs and Jordan Belson at the Morrison Planetarium. 4 pages and photos in [Youngblod].

Ben-Ary Guy. Bio-art. He is the manager of CELLCentral in the school of Anatomy and Human Biology at The University of Western Australia.
> Silent Barrage (2008-2009).
> In-Potentia (2007), with Kirsten Hudson.
> The Living Screen (2004, ongoing).

Benatouil Thomas
Matrix, machine philosophique, by Alain Badiou, Thomas Benatouil, Elie During, Patrice Maniglier, David Rabouin and Jean-Pierre Zarader. Ellipses 2003.

méanique émotions
Maurice Benayoun : a digital concept may be declined in a multitude of medias. Here, The mechanics of emotions.

Benayoun Maurice. Aka Moben. Professor at School of Creative Media, CityU Hong Kong

- Comments by Jean Segura in Sonovision, Dec. 2013, Trois décennies en 3D pour trois démiurges.
- Our posts and references.

> White Cube (2014c.) A series of perfumes.
> Political Shift (2012-2014). Work on tablet.
> Art Impact, Collective Retinal Memory in 3 steps (2013 c.), at Show Off
> Political Shift (2013 c.) at Show Off
< Open Art 1980 - 2010. Centre des arts d'Enghien-les-Bains, 2011.
> Out of the Dump (2011). Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, May-June-July 2013
> Falling pixels (2011). As above
> The mechanics of emotion (2008 and after).
> Watch Out! (2002). Quoted with picture in {Worms,2012].
>World skin (1997). Quoted by [Couchot 2003]. Presented at Ars Electronica, 1998. A picture in Codognet. Cited with picture by [Dreher] (PDF online).
4 pages with pictures in [Grau 2003].
> Le diable est-il toujours courbe ? (1994-2015). In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine, using this time a Kinect sensor for perception (see our post, including the catalog presentation). .
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] pp. 50, 99. More in French.

Benjamin Ben. Web Art. Picture of the works and comments in [Greene] p. 66-68.
> Earman (1997).
> Bingo skills-building seminar and strategy (1995).

Benjamin Walter
A basically negative look on technology in art, but still important for digital art since he is frequently quoted, for instance by [Couchot 2003] p. 16.
< L'oeuvre d'art à l'époque de sa reproductibilité technique. Ed Allia 2003.
< Sur l'art et la photographie. Le carré, 1997.
< Essais II. Denoël 1971.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] pp. 19, 63.

Bense Max (linguist) and Lutz Théo (engineer) Wikipedia.
En 1959, German verse on computer. But Bense is more known as a theorist of aesthetics.
< Aesthetica. Einfuhrung in die neue Aesthetik. Baden-Baden, Agis Verlag, 1965.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] pp. 34, 64.

Bentkowska-Kafel Anna
< Digital Visual Culture. Theory and Practice. Edited by Anna Bentkowska-Kafel, Trish Cashen and Hazel Gardiner. Intellect, Bristol, UK, 2009.
< Digital Art History. A Subject in Transition. Computers and the History of Art Volume One. Edited by Anna Bentkowsla-Kafel, Trish Cashen and Hazel Gardiner. Intellect, Bristol, USA, 2005.

Bentley Peter
< On growth, form and computers. byPeter Bentley and Kumar Sanjeev. Elsevier academic press, 2003.
- Evolutionary design by computers. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 82.

Berenguer Rocio aka Pulso. "A transdisciplinary artist, who is interested in the dramaturgy of the body and in the new media. Her creations, which belong at the same time to art and research, explore the hybridization between various disciplines and fields: theatre, dance, video, science and technology. She’s art research is centred on the body and its relationships to the environment, technology and alterity."
> Robody 2023
> Corps/Non-Lieu (2014). Web page.

Berg Alban. A music composer. See dodecaphonic.

Marcel Berger : "Living geometry, or the Jacob's scale". Pure mathematics, but with an aesthetic sense.

Berger Marcel. + 2016.
A mathematician. The two books which crown his career are inspirational for some digital artists or graphic specialists.
< A panoramic view of Riemannian geometry. Springer 2003.
< Géométrie vivante, ou l’échelle de Jacob. Cassini 2009.

Berger Pierre. Author of Diccan and the Roxame software.
- Co-founder, with Alain Lioret of the associaton Les Algoristes
- Member of the board, Paris ACM Siggraph
< L'art génératif. Jouer à Dieu... un droit ? un devoir by Pierre Berger and Alain Lioret. L'Harmattan 2012. See summary and complements.
- Home page to his texts and works.
- Quoted many times in [Berger-Lioret].

Bergeron Philippe.
> Stanley and Stella in Breaking the Ice (1987). Comments by [Couchot 2003]. Page Paris ACM Siggraph.
> Tony de Peltrie (1985), by Pierre Lachapelle, Philippe Bergeron, Pierre Robidoux and Daniel Langlois. Produced by University of Montréal.

Bergman Laura
> Everything in the World (1997), by Janet Sweig and Laura Bergman.The computer is programmed to permute every possible combination of binary code in ever increasing places to infinity. The roll upon which a landscape is painted, grows smaller and smaller, turning the world into

Bergstrom Carl.
>well-formed eigenfctor (2008). with Moritz Stefaner and Martin Roswall. Visualisation of information flows. 4 pages with pictures in [Bohnacker].

Berio Luciano. Music composer. Wikipedia.
- Thema (Omaggio à Joyce) (1958). For this work, , a score for electronic device, designed in 1958, Berio recorded his spouse reciting the first part of "Sirenas", of Ulysse, by James Joyce, with the typical whirlpool of images it suggests and a literary structure near to serialism. " [Ross], French edition p. 612.


The robot critic Berenson visiting the Musée des Arts Premiers.

Berenson. An art critic robot. Presented in 2012 at Musée des Arts Premiers (Paris). Wikipedia (in French). The name is taken from the real art critic Bernard Berenson (1865-1959, see Wikipedia.

Berkani Karim. Algorist. A member of Les Algoristes.

Berkenheger Susan
> Bubble Bath (2005). Web art. Analyzed by [Kwastek] pp.186-193.
> Time for the Smart Bomb? (1997). See History of Computer Art, by Thomas Dreher.

Berloquin Pierre. Wikipedia. Mainly a specialist in games, but in the 2010's began an experimentation in algorithmic music creation.
> Moderato (2017). Listen it.

Berlyne David. (1924-1976). Text by Vladimir J. Konetni. He published in 1972 (Revue canadienne de psychologie) a synthesis "Ends and means of experimental aesthetics".

Bernard Anaïs
< Immersivité de l'art. Interaction, insertions, hybridations. by Anaïs Bernard. Paris. L'Harmattan 2015.
< Manifeste des arts immersifs. Edited by Anaïs Bernard. Presses Universitaires de Nancy 2014.

Bernard Bruno
< Modification et hybridation des images photoniques, électroniques et algorithmiques, by Bruno Bernard. PhD thesis directed by Edmond Couchot.

Bernard Hervé. A pioneer in digital photography and editing. Wikipedia. Biography : Facebook and a PDF
- Is he a "digital artist" ? Read his answer.
< Regard sur l'image. Editions Regards & impressions, 2011. Notice about the book.
- Videos, Images, A blog about images . And also A note about illustration .

Bernard Yves. Director and artistic director of the art center Imal (Brussels).
- During the 1990's, he produced many CD-Roms. See the website of his society at that time, Magic Media. He has still an important collection of artistic CDs.

Bernardo Nuno. Transmedia producer. Founder of Beactive Media.
<. How to Develop, fund, Produce and Distribute Compelling Stories Across Multiple Platforms, by Nuno Bernardo. Beactive books, 2011. Very concrete and efficient.
> Sofia (2002). The first transmedia work by Bernardo. Its history is told with details.

Bernardot Etienne. Multimedia, video
> Hiatus (2016). Connected dance. by Ilya Gilbertas (dance, choreography) , Etienne Bernardot (images, interaction, computing) and Stephane Monteiro (music)
> Temps Réels (2015). By Etienne Bernardot (video) and Stéphane Bissières (music). "A live performance, techno/experimental, where the public is spectator of each setp in the electronic and visual creation. Handling is an integral part of the representation.". We shall comment later. See Bunqeb and Vimeo
- 2003. Co-founder of KSKF society.


Bernhard Hans. A member of Ubermorgen group.

Bernier Nicolas. Performance and devices.
> La chambre des machines (2010). Performance with mechanics and digital processing. Presented within "Québec Numérique" at Gaité Lyrique, Paris 2012.

Bernstein Jan. Kinetic art and design. A member of Fishing for Compliments.
> Scared Cube (2009). A small robot fleeing from visitors.

Berriet Emmanuel Mâa. (Known as Mâa). Multimedia artist. Video, interaction.
- Software developer since 1977. Mechanics and electronics engineer. He has played with interactivity as soon as 1983, using the Minitel, 3D image synthesis, animation films and video games. In 1996 he develops his own software, AAASeed. According to [Berger-Lioret] p. 176. it is a tool to create real time 3D images, combined with sound and video, and using many peripherals and sensors. > Qwartz Move (2014). A large interactive work for the commercial mall Qwartz, near Paris
- Videos on
> Floating points (2010 c.) presented for example in Scopitone 2010 (Nantes).
> The Nibelungen Treasure (2001-2012), with Olivier Auber and Thierry Fournier. See an extensive description and a video captation.
One of the first (if not the first) works of Art developed for a cave system. It had been designed, as for its principles, in 1997. It was for the first time staged in 2000 (ISEA 2000, at the Paris Goethe Institute), then shown at Boston Cyberart festival in 2001, and was finally installed in the Worms (Germany) Nibelungen Museum. And, alas, destroyed.

Bertozzi Jean-Pierre. Realites nouvelles
- Exposes at Animé 2019.

Bertolo Diane. Interaction and net art
Quoted with a picture in [artpress 2015].
> The Typist (1998). Interactive installation.

Mâa Berriet : Epidemik, a massively multiplayer game, at Cité des Sciences (around 2009)

Bertrand Ennio. He "works with digital images, light, video, sound and interactive installations for which he develops both software and hardware He research explores perception, social interaction and media communication".
> Percorsi (1989). Work with leds.

Berzowska Joana. Jacquart tapestry, with inks ant transparencies;
> Transformed photo, BW (2006 c.) Works at Siggraph 2006.

Besbes Skander, Aka SDNDR. Musician. One page with pictures in in [Dermineur].
> Syndromz (2011).

Besse Joël
> Partir par les pixels. 2019. Digital print. Besson Luc . Film maker.
< Luc Besson, main basse sur le cinéma
. A special issue Au Fait, may 2014.
> Arthur et les minimoys (2010 c. ) and a lot of others.
- More in French.

Bethmont Thomas.
> Groupe de recherche en homéopathie binaurale (2013-2014), with Mathilde Chenin. Experimental music. e

Betts Tom
> QQQ (2002) . Games become a performance space, dedicated to image production.

Bevilacqua Frédéric Team leader for real time musical interaction ( Interactions musicales en temps réel) at Ircam.

Bevis : Seated Nude (from Recode site).

Bevis Jean H. Painting. Scientific communication, see Science Direct.
> Untitled (before 1976). See an image in the Recode project.
> Seated Nude (before 1976). See an image in the Recode project. and on side.

Beyer Robert A pioneer in electronic music.
> Ostinato-Figuren und -Ryhtmen (1939 c.).
- The standpoint of Paul Collaer (1965).

Beyls Peter Painter and algorist..
- Retrospective exposition at Imal (Brussels) in 2014.
> Fingertips (2005). Interactive audiovisual installation.
- In 1980, he takes part in Digital Art (Grand Palais, Paris), organized by Bernard Demiaux.
> GR21 (1979) plotter drawing, quoted with picture by [Lieser] 2015.

Beyreuther Gottfried. "Computartist", making mainly "painting"s. Compuart Club.
< Art Analogique Art Digital, by Marcel Dupouy and Gottfried Beyreuther. Amazon publications, 2018.
> Performance, with Anaïs Bourquin, at FAN in Verrières-le-Buisson, Dec. 2014.

Bézier. Line generation starting from points. A modeling method for 2D and 3D.
< Calcul des parties cachées. Approximation des courbes par la méthode de Bezier et des B-splines. by R. Dony. Masson 1986.
- See [Processing] [Flash].

Sandeep Bhagwati Music Composer. Wikipedia. An interview with André Éric Létourneau et Cynthia Noury.
> Ramanujan (1998)

Bianchini. A bugged program..

Bhattacharya. A classification methods for images. See [Cocquerez].

Bhooshan Shajay. Architect
> Binaural (2008), by Daniel Widrig and Shajay Bhooshan. Quoted by [Lieser] with a picture


Bianchini Samuel. Artist and teacher at University of Valenciennes (France, Nord).
< Praticable. From Participation to Interaction in Contemporary Art, edited by Samuel Bianchini and Erik Verhagen. MIT Press. 930 pages,not very oriented towards digital art, but with a lot of digital pieces.
> Hors Cadre (2015)
> Overexposure (2014). An interactive public installation with smartphones.
> All Over (2009-2014). Work on a tablet. Notably with typographical characters used as painting elements.
> Behaviors (2014). Project.
< Simulation technologique & matérialisation artistique. Une exploration transdisciplinaire Arts/Sciences. par Samuel Bianchini, Nathalie Delprat et Christian Jacquemin. L'Harmattan 2011.
> Keywords (2011). A creation for USB key. In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, including the catalog presentation). .
> Disconnected Party v2 (2009-2011). Cited with picture in Artpress2 Art in the digital age, May-June-July 2013.
> In Realities I am a bugged program (2009).
< R&C. Recherche et création, Samuel Bianchini et al. Editions du Parc 2009.
> All Over (2009). Transcription of a picture using typographic characters instead of pixels. This is the type of work that was shown as computer art in the 1960's, Similar works have beforehand been produced with typewriters (see Laufer). > Valeurs croisées (2008). Collaboration with research laboratories. [Moulon] p.89-90 with photo.
< Interactive devices. Two pages in MCD de Jan.-Feb. 2010, signed Dominique Moulon.
- More in French.

Biasi Alberto. Encyclopédie Larousse. Kinetic art, a member of Gruppo N.

Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF).
- Illuminations in virtual reality. A presentation of Flemish illuminations by la Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Bidner Reinhold. Video. A member of 1nOut.

Biederman R=P+G ( RGB, the three figures and the resulting color)

Biederman Matthew. " a trans-disciplinary artist working across media and milieus, continents and communities. His works have been exploring perception, aesthetics, data systems, media saturation and its politics since the mid nineties".
> Perspection (2014) by Matthew Biederman & Pierce Warnecke. Video.
> Witebox (1995)

Bieg Kory. Architect. Leads the OTA+ Studio.

BIG, Bjarke Ingels Group. Architect. Wikipedia.
> West 57th Street NYC (2009C). Quoted by Terracol with picture, for its use of hyperbolic paraboloid.

Biggs Simon. Immersive and interactive works.
- [Popper2] p. 206-210.
> Agent (2008) comments with a large picture in [Lieser].
> A Little Pig Production (2005) [Forest 2].
> Parallax (2001) [Popper2].
> Halo in performance (1998), with Sarah Rubidge.
> Halo (1998). FVU page.
> The Great Wall of China, 1997, web project. See History of Computer Art, by Thomas Dreher.
> Portrait of a Young Man (1993), [Murray] p. 22-23.
> Solitary (1992) [Popper2][Murray] pp. 7-12.
> On Sight, Book of shadows. (1991),

Bighetti Vera Sylvia. University of de Sao Paulo. Intervention at Generative Art 2006.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 121.

Bijon Thomas. Digital collages with Photoshop.

Bilbao Inigo
> Memory Lane (2015) by Felix Luque and Inigo Bilbao . Video from images acquired with 3D scanning

Billion Philippe. died on octobre31, 2010. A pioneer of French synthetic image. At ExMachina he made several short films: L'Abeille, 1989, Les raies Manta, 1987, Period 1995, Tobby the flying fish, 1997). See his Paris ACM Siggrraph page.
> Tobby the flying fish (1997).
> Period (1995).
> L'Abeille (1989).
> Les raies Manta (1987).

Bilous Serge. Photographer.
> 18h39 (1997). CD Rom by Serge Bilous, Fabien Lagny, Bruno Piacenza 1997, Paris, Editions Flammarion, Collection Art & Essais PC - Macintosh . Page Olats. Presentation at Etats-Généraux de l'écriture interactive, Nov'Art 1997.

Biothing. Projet Turing Pavilion, by Alisa Andrasek and Jose Sanchez, in collaboraiton with D-shape. Using the Processing programming environment.

Biothing. This group explores the shift from the technique-based approach that dominated generative practices within architecture in the recent past towards the more explicit computational approach by engaging with scripting directly in an open source manner, addressing a growing culture of collective computational knowledge emerging within a discipline. At the core of the work is an accumulative library of scripts and methods for their transcoding, applicable to the constraints of materials, structure, fabrication and assembly. Evolving algorithmic infrastructure allows a designer to work at the scale of information linked to various forms of materialization. Computational patterns are understood as deep in terms of their potential to produce expressions at various scales. (indicated by Karim Berkani). Was presented in Centre Pompidou (Paris). See also a comment on Complexitys.
- Prizma (2012). Architectural project.
> Pavillon Seroussi (2007) in Meudon (Ile-de-France).

Biped. A software for digital dance, done by the Riberbed company (Kaiser and Eshkar). Cited by [Dixon 2007].

Bipolar. Created 2010 and seated in Montpellier (France), a production and distibution bureau.

Birchbaum Andy. A member of Yes Men group.

Bircher Martin
> Type Case (2010). A rectangular set of boxes with large "pixels" and lights. 2 pages with pictures in [Klanten].

Birgé Jean-Jacques. Music composer. Wikipedia
> 4e mouvement. Video.
> 3e Mouvement (2012). See video.
> Nabaz'mob (2009). Nabaz'mob, opera for 100 communicating rabbits (with Antoine Schmitt), created in 2009, but still developed and presented. The rabbit robots license has been sold to Mindscape, the game publisther, by fall 2009. According Planète Robots (magazine) May-June 2011 : Karotz is heir of Nabaztag, built in 2005 by the French company Violet. This company has been acquired by Mindscape in 2010. Quoted with illustration in ArtPress2, May-July 2013. > Somanbules (2003). Collaborative project with in particular Nicolas Clauss and Didier Silhol. Web page.
- Member of Un-groupe-musical-instantané, created in 1976.

Biri Venceslas. Professor. One of the leaders of Afig.

Birkhoff George David. The first thinker, as far as we know, who dared to measure beauty, in his book Aesthetic measure. Harvard university press 1933. Wikipedia. This text has been ignored therefafter, but rediscovered later by [Stiny].

Birringer Johannes. Choreographer and multimedia artist. Wikipedia.
< La danse et la perception interactives, in Interagir avec les technologies numériques (Bruxellles, Contredanse 2004).

Bishop Bainbridge.
> Orgue à couleurs (1900 c.) [Popper 1] pp. 101 127, [Popper2] p. 15.

Bishop Claire
< Digital Divide (2012). "Intended as an examination of contemporary art's represented relationship to the digital", comments [Quaranta 2013] p.8-11.Available online on Art Forum site. "My point is that mainstream contemporary art simultaneously disavows and depends on the digital revolution, even—especially—when this art declines to speak overtly about the conditions of living in and through new

Bismarck Julius von. . Subtle: he projects an image on his target (e.g. a political leader during his speech);triggered by the flashes of other photographers.
> The Image Fulgurator (2007). [Moulon] p.55. and[ Debatty et al. 2011].
- More in French.

Bissières Stéphane. Music.
> interactive space by Maflohé Passedouet and Stéphane Bissières See their page and the Mediatheque website
> Temps Réels (2015). By Etienne Bernardot (video) and Stéphane Bissières (music). "A live performance, techno/experimental, where the public is spectator of each setp in the electronic and visual creation. Handling is an integral part of the representation.". We shall comment later. See Bunqeb and Vimeo.

Alain Bittler : "This work has been realized while thinking to God's love, from a Christian standpoint". He has now widened his spiritual search.

Bittanti Matteo. An interdisciplinary artist based in San Francisco. His interventions lie at the intersection of videogames, toys, cinema, and the web. Since 2012, he is part of the collaborative project Coll.eo, with Colleen Flaherty. Additionally, Bittanti teaches in the Visual Studies (VS) and in the Visual & Critical Studies (VCS) programs at California College of the Arts in San Francisco and Oakland. Since 2012, His curatorial practice includes the exhibition Italians do it better!! in the Fringe events of the 2011 Venice Biennale with Domenico


Bittler Alain . Algorist. His blog, richly illustrated.
- In 2016, he works with fractals, aiming through this way to illumination. See an example on Youtube.

Bjork. A singer. Some of her works take serial music into account.
> Biophilia Live (2014). Webpage.
> Biophilia Tour (2011). Quoted by {Worms,2012]. An App album. With Scott Snibbe.
- Since 2007, Bjork makes use of a reactive table, the Reactable (Wikipedia).
> Vespertine (2001). Collaboration with Olivier Alary, according to Wikipedia.
> Medùlla (2004) Collaboration with Olivier Alary.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 56.

Extrapolis. General view

BK. Digital Art Company. A group formed by Etienne Guiol (video and glass) , Arnaud Pottier (graphist, plastician, web designer), Olivier Bonhomme (illustrator) and Patrick Garbit (designer graphic, typography).
Competences: graphism, illustration, interaction, stage dedign, new media, video mapping, motion design, animation 2D/3D.
> Extrapolis (2013). Projection mapping on a large canvas painted in comic style. This produces an impressive graphical effect. But it poses difficults problems, notably because the drawing is not a strandard perspective, but includes several oes, for aesthetic effects. Then the sterero projection must be specifically adapted. An important advantage is that the drawing resolution and black depth are strongly superior to those of the video, offering a very pleasant visual impression;

Black Doug. Net art.
> Bras de fer transatlantique (1986) with Norman White. [Forest 2] . Two connected systems with springs, one in Paris, the other one in Toronto, let the two players compete in arm wrestling.

Extrapolis Video pixels against drawing lines

Blair David. Interaction.
> Waxweb (1993). [Paul] presents the work: "A perfect illustration of database cinema".

Blake Jeremy. (+ 2007) Wikipedia.
> Angel Dust (2000), video/DVD "mixing architectural and abstract imagery". Shown at Art Brussels 2013. Evokes Albers geometrical works, with dynamics added.

Blanc Charles
< Grammaire des arts du dessin. Librairie Renouard, Laurens éditeur. 1863, 1881 several times republished). See [Thibault], [Berger-Lioret] p. 23. This work is typical of the "structuralist" evolution of ideas about art. Saussure linguistic theories will confirm that a little later. It marks a step into the fragmentation/progress which will reach digitization with Shannon and Von Neumann, and after them with the generative art.

Blanchet Alexis.
< Des pixels à Hollywood. Cinéma et jeux vidéo, une histoire économique et culturelle. Pix'n Love Editions, 2010. Mainly market strategic analyses.

Blanco Luz . Graphic art.
> Playground Drawing (2015) on paper.

Blank Joachim.
> Handshake (1993), by Joachim Blank, Karl Heinz Jeron, Barbara Aselmeier and Armin Haase. [Greene] p.39-40.

Blast Theory. Games, and more generally interaction. Formed by Matt Adams, Ju Row Faff, Nick Tandavanitj and others.
> Rider Spoke (2007). Analyzed by [Kwastek] pp. 248-259. >
> Desert Rain (1999). "a computer game-style represenation of the battleground landscape of the first Gulf War [Dixon 2007].

Myriam Bleau : Soft revolvers

Bleau Myriam. Interaction and performance
> Stories of Mechanical Music (2017) . sound in.
> Soft revolvers (2014). Video

Bled Jacques. A co-founder of Mac Guff Ligne. See the Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Blender. Modeling software, operating under Windows. Free.
> Blender (2000 c.).
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 171.

Bleowski Marcux. Photographer.
- CyberArts (2004). Black and white photographs, and graphical work on them.

Blin Odile
< Images numériques, l'aventure du regard, sous la direction d'Odile Blin et Jacques Sauvageot. Université dee Rennes, 1997.

Blissett Luther.
> Darko Mayer (1998). Imaginary artists, created on the web by Luther Blissett et 010101... [Greene] p. 102.

Blondeau François.
> Parenthèse (2004) . Short film, with Thibault Delcof, Jérémie Droulers and Christophe Stampe. SupInfocom. Ars Electronica Award (Text in Cyberarts 2004).

Blot David.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 56.

BLU. Animation cinema.
> Big bang big boom (2011) Special jury award, Annecy 2011.

BMPT: Buren Mosset Parmentier Toroni. Sculpture.
- [Popper1] p. 204.

BNF. See Bibliothèque nationale de France.

- Animation film (Sogitec, 1983).

Boal Augusto. Theater and interactgion . "Unlike other authors... Augusto Boal has been to jail for practicing his interactive techniques" [Wardrip-Fruin 2003] p. 339.
< Teatro do Oprimido, 1974. English translation and comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].

Boccioni  Umberto. (A futurist, years 1920-1930). A foreseer of generative art.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 30.

Bochnert Mel. Photographer.
- Several works, years 1990-2000.

Boden Margaret (Maggie).
< The creative mind : myths and mechanisms. Weidenfeld/Abacus & Basic Books, 1990; 2nd edn. Routldge, 2004.
< The philosophy of artificial life. Oxford University Press, 1996.
< Dimensions of creativity. MIT Press 1994.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 131.

François Bodet: from an album.

Bodet François.
" I work, generally, aiming to a paper printing of raster files got by export from .svg done with Inkscape. These files are generated by export of text files, created with the Gnumeric spreadsheet, into which I specify the geometric and chromatic object features
" The random dimension is constantly present, according to controlled and parametered modes, be it for shapes (random walk) or color.
" Each formula and each set of parameters can generate an infinite number of different graphic positions". (our translation from French).

> Albums (2005-2018).

Body Gabor. Film maker.
< State of images. The media pioneers Zbigniew Rybczynsi and Gabor Body. by Siegfried Zielenski and Peter Weibel (eds). Nurenberg. Verlag fur Moderne Kunst 2011.
> Private history (1978) uses cinematographic film material, but "it already showed the distinct characteristics of videographic production" (Zielenski)
> Psychocosmos (1976) Essentially consistingof computer-generated images.

Boeck Andrea
> Openings (2009). Interactive storefront of Lace (Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions). by Andrea Boeck, Jihyun Kim and Justin Lui. 2 pages in [Klanten].

Hortus solo

De Boeck Christoph. "He approaches sound as a visual and tactile medium. His installations deal with the tangible presence of sonic energy, vibration and the transformation of space through sound. The spatial organization of sound sources, the choice of materials in media and the method for sound transmission are all part of De Boeck’s permanent research into how sound relates to an environment and how humans are affected by that > Hortus Solo (2013). features in the touring group exhibition "Artificial Nature". This version of "Hortus" was made for indoor green spaces. It consists of black boxes that are distributed among plants. The black boxes sense traffic density of human visitors, or measure exterior sun and wind conditions. Small speakers produce birdcalls. The diversity of bird sounds is controlled by the harvesting of data. Whenever visitors move, the realistic birds are replaced with synthetic versions. The green indoor space is hereby provided with an artificial - Present at Overtoon expo, Imal, on spring 2013.
> Audiocapsule (2013). Work in progress.
> Installation (2012) . Steel cylinder.

Bogana Alan . Light effects, computer graphics.
- Since circa 2008

Bohnacker Hartmut.
< Design génératif. Concevoir, programmer, visualiser. by Hartmut Bohnacker, Benedikt Gross, Julia Laub and Claudius Lazzeroni. Paris, Pyramid 2010. A very beautiful book. Expensive (70 euros in Paris), but nearly 500 pages in large format, richly illustrated. Source code is provided, the whole being based on Processing and targeted on its use.
Surprise : the book does not exist in English. The original is dated 2009, in German (Generative Gestaltung). The portfolio of works is made of a series a four pages for each work, with large, high resolution pictures. They are mostly works shown in the 2000's by your artists. Probably selected mainly for their illustrative value of the concepts presented, and not as a top list of generative art. A rather rare feature: the portfolio gives a large place to typographic art.

Bohnké Benoit. Graphic design and interactive design. Analyst and critic.
< L'art de filmer l'art. (2010).

Boillot Nicolas (France) Wikipedia
> Wall trope (2014).
> Lambeaux (2012).
> urler, Netart (2006). Net art, (en collaboration avec Pierre Bourdareau.

Boillot Nicolas (Canada) Net art. "Interaction designer".

Boisnard Philippe. Member of the group HP Process.
- Works on language and technologies. Poetry and sensors. Empreintes studio, April 2012. by Hortense Gauthier et Philippe Boisnard. The announcement.

Boissarie Xavier.
> Sonde 04#12 (2012), experimentation about interaction by Emmanuel Guez, Christian Giriat and Xavier Boissarie. They explain their work in [Moindrot], pp.269-284.
> Topophonie de l'eau. At Jardin de Belleville (Paris)

Boisseau Rosita. Journalist, specialist of dance. Wikipedia.

Boisset Stéphanie
> (2000 c.). [Forest 2] p. 54
- More in French.

Boissier Jean-Louis. Wikipedia.
< L'écran comme mobile. Mamco, Geneva, 2016.
- Quoted by Aziozmanoff 2015.
- Artist, professor at Paris 8 University. Ciren page.
- [Popper 2] pages 148-151.
- Organized the Jouable. See Website.
< La relation comme forme. Université Paris 8, 2004. Augmented edition, Mamco, Geneva, 2009.
> La morale sensitive
(2001) [Popper 2].
> Globus Oculi. (2001). A CD-Rom, quoted by [Murray] p.15 and [Aziosmanoff] p. 44-46.
> Flora Petrinsularis (1993) [Murray] p 197-201 et [Aziosmanoff], photograph in [Popper 2].
> Mémoire de crayon (1995-2001) In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, including the catalog presentation).
> Album sans fin (1988-89). In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, including the catalog presentation)..
- In 1985, takes part in the Immatériaux.

Boland Howard. Bio art. She is co-founder and co-director of C-LAB,
> Nanomagnetic Plants (2012).

Bolognini Laurent
> Amplitude (2015) . Light installation
> Resonance 5 (2014)
> Electra 2 (2010). Lights and kinetics, using retinal remanency.
> Galileograph (1998).

Bolognini Maurizio. Artist and theorist of generative art.
- De l'interactivité à la démocratie. Vers un art génératif postnumérique. Communication of 11 pages in Artmedia X and, on line, his 2009 communication.
He started with random generation :
> IMs (1990 c.),
> _ Computer sigillai (1990 c.),
> Atlas 2 (1990 c. ).
Since 2000, he has been focusing on combination of programming with communication devices, specially the mobile telephone.
(2000 c. ).
> Collective intelligent machines (2000 c.).
> Programmed Machines (1990c. ) series.
- Photos and schemas in Artmedia X.

Boltana François. A creator of fonts on computer. Contrasting with Knuth's algorithmic researches, Boltana uses the computer as a tool, on the screen, like a painter on Photoshop.
< Champion (1989). Font.
< François Boltana & la naissance de la typographie numérique. by Frank Adebiaye & Suzanne Cardinal. Atelier Perousseaux 2011.

Bolter Jay David. Hypertext. Wikipedia.
< Windows and mirrors: interaction design, digital art and the myth of transparency, by Jay David Bolter and Diane Gromala. MIT Press 2003.
> Storyspace (1987), a program by Jay David Bolter and Michael Joyce. See History of Computer Art, by Thomas Dreher.

Bön Nu'a. Code-based painting, autonomic installations, sound art, video

Bonanno Mike. A member of Yes Men group.

Bon François Wikipedia
< Après le livre. Seuil 2011. About the mutation in publishing due to digital distribution.

Bonacic Vladimir. Interactive light objects, computer generated. See Compart page.
> DIN PR 18 (1969). Description by Darko Fritz in [Lartigaud]. Light matrices on a mall face.
> Untitled 1 (before 1977). A picture in the Recode project.
> G.F.E. Interactive lights (if not properly "graphic). One page and pictures in [Dreher].

Bonardi Alain Lecturer HDR at Paris 8 University, presently in delegation at Ircam. Interdisciplinary research, between musicology and computer science.
> Pianotronics2 (2013 c.). with Sandra Lvy and Franco Venturini.

Bonhomme Olivier. Illustrator. A member of BK Digital Art Company

Bonnefoy Françoise
< 1910-1970. Japon des avant-gardes. Françoise Bonnefoy (ed.). Editions du Centre Pompidou 1986. .

Bonté-Hessed2 Isabelle. Interaction
> Nuage de mots (2017). See our post about the presentation at Maif Social Club. Seems quite similar to Dédale de mots (below).
- An important - philosophical- -article by Marie Gayet in MCD #77 (2015).
> Le silence n'esixte pas (2009). Commented by [Aziozmanoff 2015] pp. 87-95
> Dédale de mots (2009). You send SMS or tweets, an a cloud of words builds itself on the screen.
- Le ponton sonore. (no longer online in 3/2015).

Bonton Pierre. University of Clermont-Ferrand
< Image numérique couleur. De l'acquisition au traitement. by Alain Trémeau, Christine Fernandez-Maloigne and Pierre Bonton. Dunod 2004.

Bookchin Natalie.
> Metapet (2002). A sort of business game. [Paul].
> The intruder (1999) . [Greene] and [Paul]. Adapts a novel by Borges. A contribution to understanding games.
> Criticism Curator Commodiy Collector Disinformation (1999).[Greene]. The case for disinformation?
> Desktop Is (1997). [Greene] a game at a time when a computer desktop was considered laborious.

Bootz Philippe. A pioneer in digital literature, and author of an important on line review of digital poetry. University Paris 8 page
- One of the main organizers of Chercher le texte. Locating the Text in Digital Literature (Paris, 2013). The press kit
> Poème percutant (2013). Performance by Philippe Bootz, Nicolas Bauffe, Claude Moreau and Jean-Pierre moreau during the Chercher le texte festival (2013)
> Pong Ping Poème (2013c.). 50 texts read in random order.
- Note the difference he draws between » two modes of assembly :
- « combinatorial »,  using pre-built text fragments according to specific algorithms,
- « automatiquc » combining words (from a dictionary) and assembly rules (grammar, style).
This distinction may be extended to any kind of arts. Il could also be more deeply defined, drilling down to letters and phonema, for instance.
- Quoted several times in [Berger-Lioret], and more (a lot) in French .

Bopape Dineo Seshee. Multimedia plastician. Her blog.. One page with in [Dermineur].
> Accounting for the (w)hole (2009).

Bordas Jérémie. Scientist. Institut de l'Internet et du Multimédia. Pôle Universitaire Léonard de Vinci. Paris La Défense;
< Omnemotion; the propatagion of emotions. Communication at Laval Virtual 2014.

Boredom Research. Generative software. Quoted by [Lieser] with pictures

Borenstein Daniel. Paris ACM Siggraph page.
> Le stylo (1987), by Daniel Borenstein and Paul Couds. Produced by Eurocitel and TDI.

Borgman Tim. Organic patterns in 3D.
> Shape53a#2 (2006 c.) Siggraph 2006. Creative workflow.

Borges Jorge Luis. Considered a forerunner of hypertext and the new media.
< The Garden of Forking Paths (1943). See the full text with an introduction in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].

Boriani Davide. Light and movement art. Encyclopédie Larousse 1960'years. A member of Gruppo T and Nouvelles Tendances.

Borillo Mario. His page en the Irit website.
< Dans l’Atelier de l'Art. Expériences cognitives Mario Borillo Ed. . Editions Champ Vallon 2010. The press release.
< Cognition et création, by Mario Borillo and Jean-Pierre Goulette. Mardaga éditeurs, AH No 80 (concepts).
< Les cinq sens de la création. Art, technologie et sensorialité. by Mario Borillo and Anne Sauvageot (eds.). Champ Vallon 1996.

Boris Mirelle. Reports and Conceptual Services . " My profession: to write a transparent technical prose".
< L'Experience Music Project de Seattle. June 1999. On line (in French).

Bork Alfred. Painting
> Untitled (before 1976). See an image e in the Recode project.

Bornhofen Stefan. Page Eisti. Functional and procedural algorithmics. Object-oriented algorithmics and Java programming. Artificial life.
- Shows interest for digital creation and art.

Boronali . Random down to donkey's tail. Known also as "effet Lolo".

Borras Michaël. Aka Systaime.

Borrego Angel
> Urban Space Station (2007 - 2008). by Natalie Jeremijenko and Angel Borrego. 18 pages with pictures in [Algora].

Borsuk Amaranth. Poet and scholar.
> Between Page and Screen by Amaranth Borsuk and Brad Bouse. A hybrid digital/print artist’s book (Siglio Press, 2012). This work has been presented by Agnieszka Przybyszewska at Chercher le texte. Locating the Text in Digital Literature (Paris, 2013). Special web page for this work.

Bosquillon Sophie. Journalist. Sonovision-Broadcast Digital Film.

Bosse Chris. Architect/sculptor.
> Digital Origami (2007). Natural model mutitplication and folding to get architectural models [Iwamoto].
>Entry Paradise Pavilion (2006). Organic forms computed and fold. Description and photos in [Iwamoto].

Bost Florence. Fabrics, design
< Textiles. Innovations et matières actives, par Florence Bost et Guillermo Crosetto. Eyrolles 2014.

Böttger Frank. Computer grahics in the 1970's. Compart page.

Bouchon Didier. A computer developer, working mainly for the Cube.
- Quoted by Aziozmanoff 2015.

Fouad Bouchoucha : Exposition Collective 2

Bouchoucha Fouad. Music with non standard instruments
> Exposition collective 2 (2016). Presented with three motorbikes at Exit (Maisons des Arts de Créteil).

Bouckaert Laurence. Music composer. Acousmatic music. Digital ?
> Ce qui traverse l'attente (2013).

Boudier Vincent , A member of Scale collective.

Boudry Pauline and Renate Lorenz. Website. They combine film and document projection. Not very digital. See Art 21, no 29, winter 2011.

Bouillants. An institution in Rennes (Brittany).
- Bouillants#4 : "the dynamics takes off again " (May 2012).
- Installations. Thierry Fournier, April-May 2012.
- March 2012 , Jesse Lucas The program . The site.

Bouillé Pierre. Painting, illustration. Humor and creativity. Page Sinarouche
> Psyche and Cupidon (2013).

Boulez Pierre. Wikipedia.
- Founder in 1977 of Ircam (Institut de recherche et de coordination acoustique/musique)
< Penser la musique aujourd'hui. Gonthier, Paris, 1963.
- [Ross] p. 494.

Boullay Boris du
>Explication de texte (2000). Funny remarks and digressions about a short text. Bootz.

Boulogne Daniel. Philosopher and artist.

Bouras Ammar. Plastic artist. One page in [Dermineur]. Art19 page.
> Tag'Out (2011).

Bourassa Renée
< Avatars, personnages et acteurs virtuels, ed. by René Bourassa and Louise Poissant. Presses de l'Université du Québec, 2013. See its presenation.

de Bourbon Parme Aude. Journalist (contemporary art) and curator. Co-organizer of Slick Art Show.
Notice on La galerie Vachette.

Philippe Bourcier: Smile

Bourcier Philippe
> Smile (2017). See post.

Bourgeois Marie-Julie. Video, photography.
> 21121221. (2012). Composition of prints.
>Tempo (2008). With Luisa Jakobsen. Animation from webcams. [Moulon] p. 74 with a photograph.

Bourgogne Jérémie.A member of Scale collective.

Bourriaud Nicolas. Wikipedia. Art critic, exposition curator. A resistant to art using technology, according to [Quaranta].
< Esthétique relationnelle. Les presses du réel, 1998. Very abstract!

Boursier-Mougenot Céleste.
- From here to hear.
- More in French.

Bourzeix Romain. Animation.
> Accident de bus à Lyon (2009). Film simulating a bus crash in Lyon. Directed by Romain Bourzeix and Thibault Arcis, with Marco Pascal for sound design. Three pages about the making-of in Créanum 2-3/2011.

Bouse Brad. Developer and poet.
> Between Page and Screen by Amaranth Borsuk and Brad Bouse. A hybrid digital/print artist’s book (Siglio Press, 2012). This work has been presented by Agnieszka Przybyszewska at Chercher le texte. Locating the Text in Digital Literature (Paris, 2013). Special web page for this work.

Boutaud Jacques. Series manager "Forme et sens. Signes sémiotiques, processus symboliques", Hermès-Lavoisier. Page on Viadeo.

Boutet de Monvel Violaine. Art critic (Art Review, Digitalarti, Flah Art, Esse arts + opinions, Artpress) and (in 2011), preparing a PhD of Art History at Paris 1 University. About moving images, video narration, cinema and digital art.

Boutiny Lucie de.
>NON-roman (1997). .Hypertext(1997-2000). [Bootz].
- More in French.

Boutruch Samuel. Co-founder of Kolkoz group.

Bouvier Alexandre. Musician, DJ, programmer.

Bouvier Jean-Pierre
< Apport de l'image numérique dans la photographie artistique contemporaine. Hervé Huitric directeur de thèse. 1997.

Bowen David. Kinetic, robotic and interactive sculptural works.
> Anomalies (2007).


Bowen Robert.
- [Wands] :
> Finnegan's wake (2004).  Print inspired by the text of James Joyce.
> Litterary landscape (2000 c.) The text as texture.

Boyer Jean-Marie. A member of RYbN group.


Boyer Vincent. Professor and researcher at Paris 8 University. A member of GRIS . A member of the board of Afig.
- Research topics : non photorealistic rendering, shading, rapid line tracing, discrete differential analysis.

Braccio Pete. Digital print and music. Active member of Siggraph.

Bracelli Gianbattista. Drawing. Wikipedia. A forerunner of cubism and digital image synthesis.
< Bizarrie di Varie Figure. Livorno 1624.

Bradsky Gary & Kaehler Adrian.
< Learning OpenCV. Computer vision with the  OpenCV library. O’Reilly 2008.

Brahms The data base of Ircam (music).

Brainball. A game, by The Interactive Institute Smart Studio. Co. The winner is the more relaxed of the two players.


Brajkovic Sebastian. Sculpture, designer.
> Lathe Chair IV (2005). Commented on with a picture by [ Debatty et al. 2011].

Brand Eelco. DAM gallery page. Animation.
> S-Movie (2007) quoted by [Lieser] with pictures

Brandeis Adam. Objects or sculpture, bio art. Not directly biological.
> Google + Open Kitchen (2012). The idea is that chef Jamie Kennedy would do a series of live kitchen cooking sessions from his point of view, and people could participate or view it via google+ hangouts.
> Gen Pets series 01 (2005)

Branki Cherif.
< Cyber design. Media & communication in design practice, by Cherif Branki and Khaldoun Zreik. Europia 1998.

Braun Carol-Ann. An artist, "Augmented chat". Her Cube page.
- > Face P.I.L . 2019. Combinatorial animation on screen. Music by Michel Caron. 2019. with Alain Longuet
> Ou-Vert 2019. Digital Print Adine Sagalyn
- - Exposes at Animé 2019
- Quoted by [Aziozmanoff 2015] on several pages.
> Le bonheur brut collectif (2012-2014)
> Sandscript (2005c.) Chat
> La preuve par Troyes (2001)
> Formes inconscientes de la ville (2000). Augmented chat.
> Gravity Wavesen (1983).

Braun Pierre. Member of team Arts: pratiques et poétiques in Rennes (France). UFR Arts Lettres Communication.
He worked with Vera Molnar in the 1980's. Algorithmic art mainly.
> Inkjets (1993-1999). Work on the inkjet printers glitches.
> Sinusoids 1 (1982 - 1984).

Bréaud Ondine.
< La question du réalisme dans l'image informatiuqe. PhD thesis, directed by Dominique Chateau. 1998.
< Le réalisme dans l'image informatique. Etude des années 1980 et 1990. by Ondine Bréaud. L'Harmattan 2001. Rich reflexions, but not easy to be grasped, since the term "realism" is not clearly positioned.

Cynthia Breazeal and her robot Kismet

Breazeal Cynthia L. Associate professor, Media Arts and Sciences at MIT. She leads the Personal Robots Group (formerly the Robotic Life Group).
- An important synthesis of his thoughts is available (Robot emotion, a functional perspective).
< Robot Emotion: A Functional Perspective. 2005. by Cynthia Breazeal and Rodney Brooks. Online.
< Designing sociable robots.  MIT Press 2002 .
- More in French.

Nicole Brenez. Historian, theorist, programmer, cinema teacher. A specialist of avant-garde cinema. According to Wikipedia (French).
- Ultimatum: an introduction to the work of Nicole Brenez, by Adrian Martin. Online.

Brennan Buck. On the borderlines of architecture and sculpture.
> Technicolor Bloom (2007). Description and photos in [Iwamoto]. Curves and complex tessellations.

Bres Stéphane.
- Interview AH No 131 : "How to look for video sequences answering a request ? "
< Traitement et analyse des images numériques. by Stéphane Bres, Jean-Michel Jolion and Frank Lebourgeois. Hermès Lavoisier 2003. AH No 127 (concepts) and AH No 131 (biblio).

Bressan Yannick. Theatre company e e-toile, Strasbourg.
< Les nouvelles technologies, vers un au-delà de la scène. L'éclatement spatio-temporel de la représentation. 14 pages in [Garbagnati]

Bret Michel Algorist. Honor member of the French association "Les Algoristes". Was a professor in Paris 8 University.Wikipedia
- His Anyflo sofware (dowloadable code, courses).
- Comments by Jean Segura in Sonovision, Dec. 2013, Trois décennies en 3D pour trois démiurges.
< L'interactivité intelligente. Interview with Michel Bret and Marie-Hélène Tramus, by Patricia Kuypers and Florence Corin, in Interagir avec les technologies numériques, Nouvelles de Danse. Condredanse, Bruxelles 2004.
< De l'interactivité à l'autonomie comportementale d'une création. Brouillard Précis, Marseille 2001.
< Images de synthèse. Méthodes et algorithmes pour la réalisation d'images numériques. Dunod 1988.

- Archives of his films on the Paris 8 website.
- Specially interested in neural nets and their application to digital graphics, for instance dancing characters. His art is graceful, very dynamical, sometimes erotically provocative. Comments in [Couchot 2003] p. 264].
> Je sème à tout vent (1990). [Moulon] p. 3. Interactive installation showing a dandelion flower dispersed when the spectator blows before a pressure sensor or microphone. In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, including the catalog presentation).. > La plume (1988), by Edmond Couchot, Michel Bret and Marie-Hélène Tramus).. In 2015, the work is shown at Futur en Seine (see our post, including the catalog presentation)..
> Deux mots (1985) . The first text in 3D animation 3D, programming a poem by Roger Laufer. A kind of animated typography, and the first French "videopoem" [Bootz].
- Quoted by [Couchot 2003], also, with a color picture by [Grau]. Quoted several times by [Berger-Lioret].
- [Popper 1, p. 155] : "Edmond Couchot, Marie-Hélène Tramus, Michel Bret and Michel Santourens created collectively works as La Plume (1988-90), Je sème à tout vent (1990), La speakerine (1989), Corps et graphie (1997)". Long commentss about the team in [Popper 2] p. 187 sq.

A Bret dancer. Always moving, sometimes erotically provocative.

Breton André
A surrealist writer and leader. Thei provocative searches of the Surrealists led to some forms of elementarization and automatization, potentially useful to algorist artists, like Oulipo.
< Manifeste du surréalisme. First published 1924. Paperback by Edition Gallimard.

Breton Julien. Calligraphic Art, Kalaam. Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 53 (but he does not consider himself a digital artist).

Breuleux Yan. Visual artist. Member of Purform Group.

Breuning Olaf . What kind of art, finally?

Briand Jeanne
> Gamete Glass (2016) Installation.

Briand Mathieu.
> Ubiq : a Mental Odyssey. Chapter1. A Space perspective (2007). Interactive video installation. Music by Gregory Ligeti. [Moulon] p. 103.

Brinkmann Ron
< The art and science of digital compositing.  Morgan-Kaufmann 1999. One of the rare books on this subject.

Briot Jean-Pierre.
< Informatique musicale
, François Pachet and Jean-Pierre Briot eds. . Hermès Lavoisier 2004.
< Langages et modèles à objets, by Jean-Pierre Briot and J. Malenfant. A special issue of RSTI, L'objet (Hermès/Lavoisier) AH No 136 (concepts).

Bristow Tegan. Researcher and artist.
< PhD Thesis en preparation at Johannesburg. Signs a 4 pages article in [Dermineur, 2013], which gives her also one page with pictures.
> Hotel Yeoville (2011). Installation

Brittany. See our "geographical guide".

Broadhurst Susan. Theater. Citations.
> Blue Bloodshot Flowers (2011). Cited by Dixon 2007.

Brochier Daniel. Light designer. (Interview by Michelle Davène, KR Home-Studio, February-March 2011.


Brixey Shawn. Wikipedia. Installations, biology.
> Alchymeia (1996). Until 1998 [Popper2]  307-311,

Broca René. Free lance consultant, animation and digital images.

Brochier Daniel. Light designer. (Interview by Michelle Davène, in KR Home-Studio, February-March 2011.

Broeckmann Andreas
-<Image, process, performance, machine. Aspects of an aesthetics of the machinic. 13 pages in [Grau].

Brooks James. Drawings, with an inspiration by systems.
> Letters from the House of Commons (2010). Ink drawing, sort of Ascii work.

Brooks Rodney
Important scientist in "life robotics".
[Whitelaw] comments :  "Ken Rinaldo, Vorn and Demers, and Simon Penny acknowledge Brooks explicitly".

Brooks Sawad. Wikipedia.
- For her show CODeDOC (2002, Whitney Artport), she asked twelve artist to submit a code able to deploy and connect three points. [Greene] p. 157. Among them are codes by herself, Global City, for Saskia Sassen. Camille Utterback, Linescape.cpp , Golan Levin Axis and Martin Wattenberg Connection

Broquaire Vincent. Drawing.
> Entrée en dialogue (2013 c.). At Show Off 2013.
> Ne pas Juger un livre à sa couverture (2010). An artist's book.

Brotot Jeanne. CEO. Sup'Infocom Arles.

Brouaye Anne. Choreographer. Agence aristique page.
> Dématérialisé (2014, work in progress). Audiovisual performance.

Brouillard (Atelier) A studio founded by Marlène Puccini and Jean Delsaux.
> La tentation de voir (1990 c.). [Couchot 2003].

Emilie Brout et Marion Maxime. Photography, Installations, generative art.
> Bliss (la colline verdoyante) (2014). Photographie par transparence
> Le tour du monde en instantané (2012-2013). série de photos
> Tempo (2008). Generative installation.

Brouwer Joke
< aRt&D. Research and Development in Art. Edited by Joke Brouwer et al. V2_Nai Publishers, Rotterdam 2005.

Brown Adam. Geometrical forms.
- Siggraph 2006 : Presentation : sensors networks and art.

Brown Daniel. Music
> Mezzo (2012). Creates audio tracks in a neo-romantic style.

Brown Jason. Music analysis, notably of the Beatles.
- A long story (9pages) about him in [Steiner, 2012]

Brown Keith. Sculptor.
> Golden round (2006 c.). Siggraph.

Brown Paul. Art with cellular automata.
> Swimming pool
( 1997) [Wands].
> Gymnasts (1997) [Wands].
- Works in the Victoria & Albert Museum.

Brown Richard Interaction and biology.
> The mimetic starfish (2000). [Popper2].
> Biotica (1999) [Popper2] pp. 296-299.

Brucker-Cohen Jonah. Page Arte.
> Police State (2003) [Greene] p. 175.
> Crank the Web (2001). A browser operating only when one turns a crank.

François Brument : Vase design by sound, and 3D printing

Brument François. works with Sonia Laugier. Lights See Digitalarti page.
> Vase #44 (2009) and series of vases. 3D design and 3D printing of vases, controlled by voice and sound.
> Eclipse (2014) . A set of LED's, modified by the proximity of a hand.
> Responsive Light (2012)
> Watt'time (2007)

Brun Estelle
> Dream Drop (2015C) An USB key is sealed in a wall, and you can copy into it anything you want.

Brun Rémi. Studio Motion in Blue.
> Un cheval qui ne serait que galop (2011).

Brunet Carla. Multimedia
> Sensorium in correlation (2013). Interactive Data visualisation, developed with the Ecoarte froup.
> Identidades Perdidas e Mantidas (2004-2005). Web art, photo, interview.

Brunet Thibault . Photography.
> Typologie du Virtuel. Sans Titre n°1 et n° 5 (2014) . Inkjet print.
- Let's him talk about his art perspective : "My art work is a photographic research fueled by the topic of reality and its imitations. I am more precisely focusing on virtual universes, and on the images of pretence, fake and look-alikes. I tend to develop alternative techniques of shooting. The aim of these processes allow me to create ambiguities in genres. Thus my pictures oscillate between different practices that get into conflicts : journalistic and scientific pictures but also classic painting, still-life painting and Japanese engraving... I also use the imagery of cinema and science fiction. This melting pot leaves room for the individual/collective imagination and the fiction. In order to create these collections, I let myself get into the universes of video games. These games are inspired by American popular, historical and political culture. They involve getting through missions : murder, blackmail, theft and escape, enemy liquidation, bombing or even the occupation of territories as Afghan. I chose to explore these games against the natural will of my avatars, the one that the usual player would use. I chose to do it as a photographer. These pictures were taken over the course of my walks in these virtual universes."
> Vice-City (12/10/07-22h40) (2012),
> First Person Shooter (2012).

Bruno Christophe
> Le dadamètre. Website.
> Fascinum (2001). Real time display of the most looked at news pictures on the web. "A panoptic vision of topics which fasninate mankind". That recalls the basic Internet search of Maurice Benayoun in his Mechanics of Emotion? That would be a natural extension of his performance/networking orientation. > Human Browser (2001). Performance on the Net. [Moulon] p. 72-73 and a picture.

Brunone Tullio (Website in Italian). Sculpture, a kind of.
> Assimetrie, IIo Movimento (1999). Video and movement.

Bruyère Jean-Michel. The founder of LFKs group. Sculpture. See Epidemic webpage.
> Le chemin de Damastès (2014). 21 hospital beds, with motors controlled by a computer.

de Bruyn Dirk. Film maker. Optical sound.
> Running (1976)


> Bryce (1990 c.) Software tool for landscape generation. See Computer Arts, Oct-Nov 2010).
- Launched 1994 for Mac. PC version in 1999. Sold to Corel, then bought by DAZ 3D . In 2006, Bryce6.1 then Bryce 7
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 178.

BSCA. Image creation company. Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Bubb Martine
< Philoophie et art numérique. Un monde extraterrestre. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2014. This book has nearly nothing to do with digital art. But you can discover there some marginally digital artists, like Marie-Agnès Kerebel, Qing He...

Büchler Pavel. Music (sound engineering). Artsynet page.
> Studio Schwitters (2010). Computer, software, sound, furniture. Quoted, with an image, in [Spieler-Scheuermann] pp. 66-67.

Buci-Glucksman Christine.
< L'art à l'époque du virtuel. L'Harmattan 2003. SH No 09 (concepts).
< L'esthétique du temps au Japon. Du zen au virtuel
. Galilée, Paris 2001.

Buckhouse James.
> Tap (2002). Small program, downloadable on Palm Pilot to enhance small dancers performance. Page web.

Buellet Stéphane. Cheval Vert studio
> Idil , interaction design and datapghsicalization.

Suivez Budard. A 1972 French series about a local TV.
- More in French.

Budgett Graham. See Jane Mulfinger, with which he cooperates.

Bueller Stéphane ( Cheval Vert studio),
> Idil (2015C) interaction design and datapghsicalization.

Buf. Studio.
- "Buf exalted" by the direcor of Thor. Sonovision/Digital film 5/2011.
- Buf did the 3D for the whole Arthur and the minimoys, by Luc Besson.
- "A une époque où il n'y avait ni logiciels ni matériels dédiés à la 3D, Pierre Buffin a développé ses propres outils en interne. Depuis 1985, Buf est ainsi resté une des sociétés les plus innovantes du domaine des effets visuels" (Lecture by Olivier Gilbert and Yves Le Peillet, Buf associates, during the wokshop Le futur a un passé (2011)).

Buguet Anne. Dance, Kinect music. Linkedin. Artistic director of Omproduck.
> Axis Mundi (2012). Kinect music. with Michel Ozeray, Philippe Ménard and Joseph Jaouen.

Bulatov Dmitri. Bio art . See Videodoc page.

- Film d'animation (Sogitec, 1983).
- This society supported the work of the musician Barbaud.

Bulloch Angela. Wikipedia : she has used video, sound and light to explore pre-edited systems. Many of her works make use of biofeedback systems.
> Work (2016C) LED on a large black panel, shown at Fiac 2016
> Betaville (1994) a machine painting vertical and horizontal stripes on a wall, was triggered whenever someone sat on the bench in front of it

Bullot Nicolas J.
< Art and the Mind ,by Bullot, N. J., Ludwig, P. (Advisory editors). Smith, B. (Editor). (2003, October).The Monist, An International Quarterly Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry (86:4).

Burgundy . A French region. See our "geographical guide ".

Bunting Heath. Page Irrational. Many quotations and works presentations in [Greene], some in [Lieser] .
> Map of the Terrorism (2008) , a large picture in in [Lieser].
> BorderXing (2002).
> IDENTITISWAPDATABASE (1999) by Olia Lialina and Heath Bunting [Greene]. To create home pages rapidly.
> Superweed Project (1999). Derisive website about electronic commerce.
> The Biotech Hobbyist (1998). by Heat Bunting and Natalie Jeremijenko.
> _readme.html (Own, Be Owned or Remain Invisible) (1996).
> A Visitor's Guide to London (1995).
> Communication Creates Conflict (1995).
> King's Cross Phone In (1994). Art Internet.
> Radio 90 (1990 c.).

Bureau d'Etudes Group.
> Lagardère, Chroniques de guerre (2003).

Bureaud Annick. Wikipedia. Art critic and analyst. Manages Leonardo Olats.
- Bio Art - Bio Design. Quelle création artistique ? (Video, march 2014).
- Co-organizer of the symposium "De l'esthétique de la communication au net art" AH No 96 (concepts).

Buren Daniel. His website is by itself a work of art. (Beaux Arts Magazine, Feb. 2011).

Burgaud Patrick Henri
> The house of the small languages (1999). The website, today closed, was presenting languages with less than ten speakers in the world. Bootz.
> Orphée Aphone (2004) Substantial presentation in [Bootz].
> Poèmes et Quelques Lettres (1997), [ Bootz].

Bürger Manuel. Multimedia.
> The Midi Opera (2010 c.) Web page
> Media is a Sausage (2006).

Burkardt Sam. Motion design and TV emissions completion. (Charles Lessac, a 3 pages article in Créanum 2-3/2011).

Burnham Jack
< Real Time Systems (1969). Article published in Art Forum. Commented by [Greene] p. 24.
< Beyond Modern Sculpture. (1968) . Analyst and critic. See comments in [Whitelaw].

Burnham  Sheerlann Ki Sun Siggraph 2006 : organic algorithms. The website contains only a home page (on 7/1/2011).

Bürobert. Bio-art as resistance. A group or artists. For instance Stephan Geene. Cited by [Reichle 2009]

Burroughs William Wikipedia . Digital by his use of cutup.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 34. More in French.
< The Cut-Up Method of Brion Gysin. 1961. Reprinted with an introduction in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].

Burry Jane et Burry Mark
< The new mathematics of architecture. by Jane Burry and Mark Burry. Thames & Hudson 2010.

Burson Nancy . Wikipedia.  Composite phogographs.
> Beuay composites. First et second. (1982) [Paul].

Burton Marie . [Popper1] p.172: with Mark Rogovin, a work on the painting of "murals".
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 156.

Bury Pol. [Popper1] pp. 24 100, 129. Kinetic art, rather like Tinguely.

Vannevar Bush : as soon as 1945, a vision of the hyper-communicating world of XXIth century.

Bush Vannevar. A forerunner of modern information systems and of Internet more specifically. Dedicated page. And his famed essay : As we may think (July 1945). Full text of this essay is reprinted, with and an introduction in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].
- Still Building the Memex. A 9 pages paper in Communications of the ACM, February 2011.
< From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's Machine. by James M. Nyce, Paul Kahn (dirs). Academic Press, Boston, 1991.
< History of Computer Art. Interestingon the early history of hypertext literature.

BYOA. "Bring your own animation". One of the activities of Paris ACM Sigrraph, mainly led by Thierry Frey. More info. No longer operational in 2018.

Byrne David. Music
> Song for Julio (2008), by David Hanson (robotics) and David Byrne (music). 8 pages with pictures in in [Algora].


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